Life Values Among Lebanese and Portuguese College Students

A Cross-Cultural Comparison


  • Cátia Marques University of Minho, Portugal
  • Maria do Céu Taveira University of Minho, Portugal
  • Mayssah El Nayal Beirut Arab University, Lebanon
  • Ana Daniela Silva University of Minho, Portugal
  • Valdiney Gouveia Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil



assessment, college students, confirmatory factor analysis, construct validity, functional theory, life values


This study aims to test the applicability of the functional theory of life values and score differences among a group of students from Lebanon and Portugal. Participants include 565 college students—278 Lebanese and 287 Portuguese. A demographic questionnaire and an adapted version of the Basic Values Survey were completed. Confirmatory/multigroup factor analysis, a generalized Procrustes analysis, and a t test were used. Results indicate that content and structure hypotheses were equivalent among the two groups. There were significant differences between the Lebanese and Portuguese students in normative and promotion values in favor of the first group, and in interactive, suprapersonal, and excitement values in favor of the second. This study has implications for institutional academic and social practices with international college students.

Author Biographies

Cátia Marques, University of Minho, Portugal

CÁTIA MARQUES, PhD, is a Research Assistant in the Center for Research in Psychology, in the School of Psychology, at University of Minho. Her major research interests lie in the area of basic life values, career ethical reflexivity, youths’ life trajectories, career transitions, occupational adaptation, and multiculturalism.

Maria do Céu Taveira, University of Minho, Portugal

MARIA DO CÉU TAVEIRA, PhD, is a Professor and the Vice Dean of the Department of Applied Psychology, School of Psychology, University of Minho. Her major research interests lie in the area of career exploration, academic adjustment and well-being, and evaluation of career interventions.

Mayssah El Nayal, Beirut Arab University, Lebanon

MAYSSAH EL NAYAL, PhD, is a Professor of Psychology and the Dean of Faculty of Human Sciences at Beirut Arab University –Lebanon. Her major research interests lie in the area of mental disorders, personality, healthy behavior and positive psychology

Ana Daniela Silva, University of Minho, Portugal

ANA DANIELA SILVA, PhD, is a Researcher in the Center for Research in Psychology, in the School of Psychology, at University of Minho. Her major research interests lie in the area of higher education and career development.

Valdiney Gouveia, Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil

VALDINEY GOUVEIA, PhD, is a Professor of Social Psychology at Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil, and currently, a Visiting Professor at University of Victoria, Canada. His main research interests lie in the area of human values, attitudes, pro and antisocial behaviors, and personality traits.


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How to Cite

Marques, C., do Céu Taveira, M., El Nayal, M., Silva, A. D., & Gouveia, V. (2020). Life Values Among Lebanese and Portuguese College Students: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. Journal of International Students, 10(1), 159–180.



Research Articles (English)