An Exploration on the Attachment, Acculturation, and Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese International Students in Japan
Keywords:acculturation, attachment, Chinese international students, Japan, psychosocial adjustment
In this study, we selected Chinese students (N = 277) studying in Japan as research participants to examine the relation among their attachment, acculturation, and psychosocial adjustment. The study’s first finding revealed that Chinese students studying in Japan had a better adjustment outcome than those in America in terms of sociocultural adjustment but not psychological adjustment. The second set of findings from the results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that psychological distress and sociocultural adjustment could be predicted by attachment anxiety and avoidance. Third, we found a positive correlation between acculturation to the host culture and sociocultural adjustment difficulties. Fourth, we did not find a correlation between acculturation to the host culture and attachment anxiety and avoidance. We offer a discussion on the findings and limitations in light of the unique Japanese sociocultural context.
An, Y., & Nagai, S. (2019). Factors related to help-seeking process of Chinese international students in depressed situation: Comparing Chinese international students studying at language school to Japanese university students. Japanese Journal of Community Psychology, 23(1), 34–51.
Berry, J. W. (2003). Conceptual approaches to acculturation. In K. M. Chun, P. B. Organista, & G. Marin (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 17–38). American Psychological Association.
Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Minde, T., & Mok, D. (1987). Comparative studies of acculturative stress. International Migration Review, 21(3), 491–511.
Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55(3), 303–332. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x
Bond, M. H. (2002). Reclaiming the individual from Hofstede’s ecological analysis—A 20-year odyssey: Comment on Oyserman et al. (2002). Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 73–77. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.128.1.73
Bourhis, R. Y., Moïse, L. C., Perreault, S., & Senécal, S. (1997). Towards an interactive acculturation model: A social psychological approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32(6), 369–386. https://doi.org/10.1080/002075997400629
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent–child attachment and healthy human development. Basic Books.
Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46–76). Guilford Press.
Center for China and Globalization. (2018). Annual report on the development of Chinese studying abroad 2017. Social Science Academic Press.
Chen, H.-J., Mallinckrodt, B., & Mobley, M. (2002). Attachment patterns of East Asian international students and sources of perceived social support as moderators of the impact of U.S. racism and cultural distress. Asian Journal of Counselling, 9(1–2), 27–48.
Chen, J., & Zhou, G. (2019). Chinese international students’ sense of belonging in North American postsecondary institutions: A critical literature review. Brock Education: A Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 28(2), 48–63. https://doi.org/10.26522/brocked.v28i2.642
Derogatis, L. R., & Savitz, K. L. (2000). The SCL–90–R and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in primary care. In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), Handbook of psychological assessment in primary care settings (pp. 297–334). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ge, W. (2007). Cross-cultural adaptation of Chinese students and technical trainees in Japan. Keisuisha.
Gouin, J.-P., & MacNeil, S. (2019). Attachment style and changes in systemic inflammation following migration to a new country among international students. Attachment & Human Development, 21(1), 38–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2018.1541515
Han, I. (2004). Psychological study about the maladjustment and inferiority complex of Chinese students in Japan. The Sanyo Review, 11, 105–125. https://doi.org/10.24598/sanyor.11.0_105
Han, S., Pistole, M. C., & Caldwell, J. M. (2017). Acculturative stress, parental and professor attachment, and college adjustment in Asian international students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 45(2), 111–126. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmcd.12068
Hayashi, S. (1997). The effects of self-perception and attitudes to cultures on international students’ feeling of adjustment. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 68(5), 346–354.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. SAGE.
Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/ame.1993.9409142061
Inoue, N., & Merino, A. C. (2007). Intercultural academic adjustment of Japanese government scholarship students: A multiple case study at Kyushu University. Kyushu Communication Studies, 5, 61–74.
Japan Student Services Organization. (2018). International students in Japan 2017. Retrieved from http://www.jasso.go.jp
Jou, Y-H., & Fukada, H. (2011). The influence of stress and social support on the mental and physical health of Chinese students in Japan: Was there change in seventeen years? International Students Education, 16, 1–12.
Lee, J. S. (2017). Challenges of International students in a Japanese university: Ethnographic perspectives. Journal of International Students, 7(1), 73–93. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v7i1.246
Lopez, F. G., & Gormley, B. (2002). Stability and change in adult attachment style over the first-year college transition: Relations to self-confidence, coping, and distress patterns. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(3), 355–364. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-022.214.171.1245
Ma, B. (2007). The relationship between mental health status and psychosociological factors among Chinese postgraduate students in Japan. Juntendo University Medicine, 53, 200–210.
Mallinckrodt, B., & Wang, C.-C. (2004). Quantitative methods for verifying semantic equivalence of translated research instruments: A Chinese version of the experiences in close relationships scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(3), 368–379. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0126.96.36.1998
Mattanah, J. F., Hancock, G. R., & Brand, B. L. (2004). Parental attachment, separation-individuation, and college student adjustment: A structural equation analysis of mediational effects. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(2), 213–225. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0188.8.131.52
Muthukrishna, M., Bell, A., Henrich, J., Curtin, C., Gedranovich, A., McInerney, J., & Thue, B. (2018). Beyond WEIRD psychology: Measuring and mapping scales of cultural and psychological distance. SSRN. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3259613
Nagy, S. R. (2012). Japanese-style multiculturalism? A comparative examination of Japanese multicultural coexistence. Japan Journal of Multilingualism and Multiculturalism, 18(1), 1–18.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2017). Education at a glance 2017: Indicators. https://doi.org/10.1787/eag-2017-en
Simic-Yamashita, M., & Tanaka, T. (2010). Exploratory factor analysis of the Sociocultural Adaptation Scale (SCAS) among international students in Japan. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 29, 206–195
Sullivan, C., & Kashubeck-West, S. (2015). The interplay of international students’ acculturative stress, social support, and acculturation modes. Journal of International Students, 5(1), 1–11.
Sun, Y. (2013). Chinese students in Japan: The mediator and the moderator between their personality and mental health. International Journal of Psychology, 48(3), 215–223. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207594.2011.648942
Suzuki, E. (2007). The present of multicultural in Japan. in T. Menju & E. Suzuki (Eds.), Introductory course 4 for cooperative activities exchange: Multicultural power—overcoming multicultural coexistence (pp. 14–39). Akashi Shoten.
Takai, J. (1989). An overview of international student adjustment studies in Japan. Bulletin of the School of Education Psychology, 36, 139–147. https:// doi.org/10.18999/bulfep.36.139
Tan, H., Watanabe, T., & Konno, H. (2011). A review of psychological studies on the cross-cultural adaptation of international students in Japan. Mejiro University Psychology Studies, 7, 95–114.
Tanaka, T., Tkai, J., Kohyama, T., & Fujhihara, T. (1994) Adjustment patterns of international students in Japan. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18(1), 55–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(94)90004-3
Wang, C.-C. D., & Mallinckrodt, B. (2006). Acculturation, attachment, and psychosocial adjustment of Chinese/Taiwanese international students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(4), 422–433. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.2062
Wang, J., Kelly, B. C., Liu, T., Zhang, G., & Hao, W. (2013). Factorial structure of the brief symptom inventory (BSI)-18 among Chinese drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133(2), 368–375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.06.017
Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock (2nd ed.). Routledge.
Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1994). Acculturation strategies, psychological adjustment, and sociocultural competence during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18(3), 329–343. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(94)90036-1
Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1999). The measurement of sociocultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23(4), 659–677. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00014-0
Ward, C., & Lin, E.-Y. (2010). There are homes at four corners of the seas: Acculturation and adaptation of overseas Chinese. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of Chinese psychology (pp. 657–677). Oxford University Press.
Wei, M., Russell, D. W., & Zakalik, R. A. (2005). Adult attachment, social self-efficacy, self-disclosure, loneliness, and subsequent depression for freshman college students: A longitudinal study. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(4), 602–614. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0220.127.116.112
Wu, X. (2017). A review of social network studies for international students in Japan. Integrated Sciences for Global Society Studies, 6, 29–39.
Yasuda, T. (2011). The fantasy of multilingual society: Reconsidering the history of modern Japanese language. Sangensha.
Yeh, C., & Inose, M. (2002). Difficulties and coping strategies of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean immigrant students. Adolescence, 37(145), 69–82.
Yeh, C. J., & Inose, M. (2003). International students’ reported English fluency, social support satisfaction, and social connectedness as predictors of acculturative stress. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 16(1), 15–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/0951507031000114058
Yin, M., & Aoki, K. (2018). A qualitative study about the cross-cultural adaptation of Chinese international students in Japan. Bulletin of Center of Clinical Psychology & Counseling at Ochanomizu University, 19, 49–59.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of International Students
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
All published articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported License.