International Students’ Willingness to Communicate in English as a Second Language
The Effects of L2 Self-Confidence, Acculturation, and Motivational Types
Keywords:acculturation, English as a second language, L2 self-confidence, motivational types, willingness to communicate
This study examined factors affecting international students’ willingness to communicate (WTC) in English as a second language (ESL), focusing on second language (L2) self-confidence, acculturation, and motivational types. L2 self-confidence was hypothesized to predict L2 WTC and to mediate the correlation between acculturation and L2 WTC for instrumental motivation learners, but not for integrative ones. Participants were 88 Japanese students studying at a university in California. The results partially confirmed the hypotheses, indicating that both L2 self-confidence and acculturation strongly correlate with L2 WTC, but the mediation effect of L2 self-confidence on the correlation between acculturation and L2 WTC was opposite from the hypothesis, as the mediation effect was significant for integrative motivation learners but not for instrumental ones.
Andarade, M. (2006). International students in English-speaking universities: Adjustment factors. Journal of Research in International Education, 5(2), 131–154.
Chihara, T., & Oller, J. W. (1978). Attitudes and attained proficiency in EFL: A sociolinguistic study of adult Japanese speakers. Language Learning, 28, 55–68.
Cook, V. (2000). Linguistics and second language acquisition. Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press and Macmillan.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Plenum.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of self-determination. University of Rochester Press.
Dörnyei, Z. (2001a). Motivational strategies in the language classroom. Cambridge University Press.
Dörnyei, Z. (2001b). Teaching and researching motivation. Pearson Education.
Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Attitudes, orientation, and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research, and applications. Language Learning, 53(Supp.), 3–32.
Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford University Press.
Gallagher, H. C. (2013). Willingness to communicate and cross-cultural adaptation: L2 communication and acculturative stress as transaction. Applied Linguistics, 34(1), 53–73.
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. Edward Arnold.
Gardner, R. C. (2001). Integrative motivation and second language acquisition. In Z. Dörnyei & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 422–459). University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.
Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1959). Motivational variables in second-language acquisition. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13(4), 266–272.
Gardner, R. C., & Tremblay, P. F. (1994). On motivation, research agendas, and theoretical frameworks. The Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 359–368.
Gareis, E. (2012). Intercultural friendship: Effects of home and host region. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 5(4), 309–328.
Hashimoto, Y. (2002). Motivation and willingness to communicate as predictors of reported L2 use: The Japanese ESL context. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 20(2), 29–70.
Kishino, H., & Takahashi, T. (2019). Global citizenship development: Effects of study abroad and other factors. Journal of International Students, 9(2), 535–559.
Kreishan, L. J., & Al-Dhaimat, Y. (2013). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, orientation and achievements in L2 of Arab learners of English, French and German: A study from Jordan. International Education Studies, 6(12), 52–63.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15, 3–26.
MacIntyre, P. D., Dörnyei, Z., Clément, R., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545–562.
McCroskey, J. C., & Baer, J. E. (1985, November). Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement [Paper presentation]. Annual Convention of the Speech Communication Association, Denver, CO, United States.
Noels, K. A. (2003). Learning Spanish as a second language: Learners’ orientations and perceptions of their teachers’ communication style. In Z. Dörnyei (Ed.), Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning (pp. 97–136). Blackwell.
Noels, K. A., Pon, G., & Clément, R. (1996). Language, identity, and adjustment: The role of linguistic self-confidence in the acculturation process. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15(3), 246–264.
Oller, J. W., Baca, L., & Vigil, F. (1977). Attitudes and attained proficiency in ESL: A sociolinguistic study of Mexican–Americans in the South West. TESOL Quarterly, 11, 173–183.
Oller, J. W., & Perkins, K. (1978). Intelligence and language proficiency as sources of variance in self-reported affective variables. Language Learning, 28, 85–97.
Schmidt, R. W. (1983). Interaction, acculturation, and the acquisition of communicative competence: A case study of an adult. In N. Wolfson, E. Judd, & E. Hatch (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language acquisition (pp. 137–174). Newbury House.
Schumann, J. H. (1978). The pidginization process: A model for second language acquisition. Newbury House.
Schumann, J. H. (1986). Research on the acculturation model for second language acquisition. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 7(5), 379–392.
Wang, I-C., Ahn, J., Kim, H., & Lin-Siegler, X. (2017). Why do international students avoid communicating with Americans? Journal of International Students, 7(3), 555–580.
Ward, C. A., & Kennedy, A. (1999). The measurement of sociocultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23(4), 659–77.
Yashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. The Modern Language Journal, 86(1), 54–66.
Yashima, T. (2009). International posture and the ideal L2 self in the Japanese EFL context. In E. Ushioda & Z. Dörnyei (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 144–163). Multilingual Matters.
Yashima, T., Zenuk-Nishide, L., & Shimizu, K. (2004). The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language Learning, 50(1), 119–152.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of International Students
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
All published articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported License.