Racial Unspeakability

Affect and Embodiment in Swiss International Higher Education Institutions

Authors

  • Gian-Louis Hernandez

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11iS1.3846

Keywords:

race, ethnicity, nationality, affect, embodiment

Abstract

Increasing diversity in international student mobility/migration has gained attention in recent years (Bilecen & Van Mol, 2017). Diversity in international higher education institutions has primarily been understood in terms of diversity of national origin, meaning the dynamics of racial and ethnic differences are not adequately addressed in the literature (Estera & Shahjahan, 2018). This study uses data collected during semi-structured interviews with international and domestic students, as well as administrators, to identify narrations of race, ethnicity, and nationality that delimit a modern/colonial global imaginary (Stein & Andreotti, 2017). It further demonstrates that internal heterogeneity of both sending and receiving countries leads to varied meaning-making schemes for engaging with embodied racial differences and their attendant affective relations (Ahmed, 2013; Wetherell, 2012). The project suggests the term racial unspeakability as a culturally contingent, affective force that governs narrations of race, ethnicity, and nationality

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Gian-Louis Hernandez

GIAN-LOUIS HERNANDEZ, MA, is a PhD candidate in the Faculty of Communication, Culture, and Society at the Università della Svizzera Italiana. His research explores issues of race, ethnicity, and nationality in international higher education. His publications have appeared in Latino Studies and Studies in Communication Sciences. Email: hernag@usi.ch ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7196-9957

References

Accapadi, M. M. (2007). When White Women Cry: How White Women's Tears Oppress Women of Color. College Student Affairs Journal, 26(2), 208–215. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ899418

Ahmed, S. (2012). On being included: Racism and diversity in institutional life. In Sociological Research Online (Vol. 17, Issue 2, p. 243). https://doi.org/10.1080/19496591.2017.1358630

Ahmed, S. (2013). The cultural politics of emotion.

Alcoff, L. (2005). Visible identities: Race, gender, and the self.

Altbach, P., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L. (2019). Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution.

Ancy Annamma, S., Jackson, D. D., & Morrison, D. (2016). Race Ethnicity and Education Conceptualizing color-evasiveness: using dis/ ability critical race theory to expand a color-blind racial ideology in education and society. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2016.1248837

Baker, W. (2016). English as an academic lingua franca and intercultural awareness: student mobility in the transcultural university. Language and Intercultural Communication, 16(3), 437–451.

Bilecen, B., & Van Mol, C. (2017). Introduction: international academic mobility and inequalities. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(8), 1241–1255. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2017.1300225

Blanco, G. L., & Saunders, D. B. (2019). Giving account of our (mobile) selves: embodied and relational notions of academic privilege in the international classroom. Teaching in Higher Education, 24(5), 666–677. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2019.1621281

Brown, K. D. (2016). Where race, emotions and research meet: Moving towards a framework of race critical researcher praxis. In Methodological Advances in Research on Emotion and Education (pp. 179–189). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29049-2_14

Bryant, K. M., & Soria, K. M. (2015). College Students' Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Participation in Study Abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 25(2009), 91–106.

Cervulle, M. (2014). The uses of universalism. "Diversity Statistics" and the race issue in contemporary France. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 17(2), 118–133. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367549413508097

Collins, F. L., Ho, K. C., Ishikawa, M., & Ma, A. S. (2017). After-Study Lives : the Portability and. May 2016. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2029

Craig, C. J., Zou, Y., Verma, R., Stokes, D. W., You, J., Stokes, D., Evans, P., & Curtis, G. (2018). Article in Teaching and Teacher Education ·. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2018.01.014

Cretton, V. (2018). Performing Whiteness: racism, skin colour, and identity in Western Switzerland. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 41(5), 842–859. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2017.1312006

Cyr, L. (2018). Literature Review: Interdisciplinary Findings on Diversity and Inclusion. In Diversity and Inclusion in Higher Education and Societal Contexts (pp. 17–34). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70175-2_2

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2000). Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In Handbook of qualitative research (2nd edition).

El-Tayeb, F. (2011). European others : Queering ethnicity in postnational Europe. University of Minnesota Press. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttbbx

Estera, A., & Shahjahan, R. A. (2018). Globalizing Whiteness? Visually re/presenting students in global university rankings websites. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 1–16.

https://doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2018.1453781

Findlay, A. M. (2011). An Assessment of Supply and Demand-side Theorizations of International Student Mobility. International Migration, 49(2), 162–190. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00643.x

Fries-Britt, S., Mwangi, C. G., & Peralta, A. (2014). Learning Race in a U.S. Context: An Emergent Framework on the Perceptions of Race Among Foreign-Born Students of Color. Article in Journal of Diversity in Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035636

George Mwangi, C. A., Latafat, S., Hammond, S., Kommers, S., S. Thoma, H., Berger, J., & Blanco-Ramirez, G. (2018). Criticality in international higher education research: a critical discourse analysis of higher education journals. Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-018-0259-9

Geurts, K. (2003). Culture and the senses: Bodily ways of knowing in an African community.

Goldberg, D. T. (2009). The threat of race : Reflections on racial neoliberalism. Wiley-Blackwell.

Hanassab, S. (2006). Diversity, International Students, and Perceived Discrimination: Implications for Educators and Counselors. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(2), 157–172. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315305283051

Hesse, B. (2007). Racialized modernity: An analytics of white mythologies. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(4), 643–663.

https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870701356064

Indelicato, M. E. (2018). Australia's New Migrants: International Students' History of Affective Encounters with the Border. Routledge.

Jon, J.-E. (2012). Power dynamics with international students: from the perspective of domestic students in Korean higher education. Higher Education, 64(4), 441–454. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-011-9503-2

Kahl, A., Ayata, B., Harders, C., Özkaya, D., & Wahba, D. (2019). Interviews as situated affective encounters. In Analyzing Affective Societies (pp. 63–77). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429424366-4

Kamara, A. (2017). International Students and "The Presentation of Self" Across Cultures. Journal of International Students, 7(2), 291–310.

Kim, T. (2010). Transnational academic mobility, knowledge, and identity capital. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 31(5), 577–591. https://doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2010.516939

Kleres, J. (2011). Emotions and Narrative Analysis: A Methodological Approach. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 41(2), 182–202. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.2010.00451.x

Lavanchy, A. (2014). How does "race" matter in Switzerland ?

http://doc.rero.ch/record/210431

Lee, J. T., & Rice, C. (2007). Welcome to America? International student perceptions of discrimination. Higher Education, 53(3), 381–409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s

Lee, Jasmine, & Green, Q. (2016). Unique opportunities: Influence of study abroad on Black students. In Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad: Vol. XXVIII.

Lee, Jenny, Jon, J.-E., & Byun, K. (2016). Neo-Racism and Neo-Nationalism Within East Asia. Journal of Studies in International Education, 21(2), 136–155. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315316669903

Lee, Jenny, & Opio, T. (2011). Coming to America: challenges and difficulties faced by African student athletes. Sport, Education and Society, 16(5), 629–644. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2011.601144

Lörz, M., Netz, N., & Quast, H. (2016). Why do students from underprivileged families less often intend to study abroad? Higher Education, 72(2), 153–174. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-015-9943-1

Manathunga, C. (2017). Excavating cultural imperialism in student mobility programmes. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2017.1301382

Marginson, S. (2014). Student self-formation in international education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(1), 6–22.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315313513036

Marginson, S, & Van der Wende, M. (2007). Globalisation and Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1787/173831738240

May, V. M., & Ferri, B. A. (2005). Fixated on ability. Prose Studies, 27(1–2), 120–140. https://doi.org/10.1080/01440350500068999

Melamed, J. (2006). The Spirit of Neoliberalism: From Racial Liberalism to Neoliberal Multiculturalism. Social Text.

https://epublications.marquette.edu/english_fac/11

Michel, N. (2015). Sheepology: The Postcolonial Politics of Raceless Racism in Switzerland. Postcolonial Studies, 18(4), 410–426. https://doi.org/10.1080/13688790.2015.1191987

Mitchell, D., Steele, T., Marie, J., & Timm, K. (2017). Learning Race and Racism While Learning: Experiences of International Students Pursuing Higher Education in the Midwestern United States. AERA Open https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858417720402

Müller, C., Cienki, A., Fricke, E., Ladewig, S., McNeill, D., & Teßendorf, S. (Eds.). (2013). Body–language–communication. An international handbook on multimodality in human interaction.

https://research.brighton.ac.uk/en/publications/cornelia-muller-alan-cienki-ellen-fricke-silvia-ladewig-david-mcn

Murji, K., & Solomos, J. (2005). Racialization: studies in theory and practice.

Neveu Kringelbach, H. (2015). Gendered educational trajectories and transnational marriage among West African students in France. Identities, 22(3), 288–302. https://doi.org/10.1080/1070289X.2014.939190

Ossipow, L., Counilh, A.-L., & Chimienti, M. (2019). Racialization in Switzerland: experiences of children of refugees from Kurdish, Tamil and Vietnamese backgrounds. Comparative Migration Studies, 7(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40878-019-0117-7

Pitts, M. J. (2009). Identity and the role of expectations, stress, and talk in short-term student sojourner adjustment: An application of the integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33(6), 450–462.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2009.07.002

Riaño, Y., Lombard, A., & Piguet, E. (2018). How to explain migration policy openness in times of closure? The case of international students in Switzerland. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 16(3), 295–307. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767724.2017.1412823

Riaño, Y., Mol, C. Van, & Raghuram, P. (2018). New directions in studying policies of international student mobility and migration mobility and migration. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 16(3), 283–294.

https://doi.org/10.1080/14767724.2018.1478721

Ruigrok, W., Peck, S., & Tacheva, S. (2007). Nationality and gender diversity on Swiss corporate boards. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 15(4), 546–557. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8683.2007.00587.x

Saldanha, A. (2006a). Reontologising race: The machinic geography of phenotype. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 24(1), 9–24.

https://doi.org/10.1068/d61j

Saldanha, A. (2006b). Reontologising race: The machinic geography of phenotype. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 24(1), 9–24.

https://doi.org/10.1068/d61j

Shahjahan, R. A., Sonneveldt, E. L., Estera, A. L., & Bae, S. (2020). Emoscapes and commercial university rankers: the role of affect in global higher education policy. Critical Studies in Education.

https://doi.org/10.1080/17508487.2020.1748078

Sodhi, M. (2008). Embodied knowing: An experiential, contextual, and reflective process.

http://newprairiepress.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2943&context=aerc

Sossa, A., & Bull, M. J. (2017). Yeah, and What's the Problem? Embodiment, Cultural Practices and Working out in a Dutch Gym.

https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6020044

Stein, S. (2017). Contested imaginaries of global justice in the internationalization of higher education.

https://open.library.ubc.ca/collections/ubctheses/24/items/1.0353186

Stein, S., & Andreotti, V. O. de. (2016). Cash, competition, or charity: international students and the global imaginary. Higher Education, 72(2), 225–239.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-015-9949-8

Stein, S., & Andreotti, V. de O. (2017). Higher Education and the Modern/Colonial Global Imaginary. Cultural Studies - Critical Methodologies, 17(3), 173–181. https://doi.org/10.1177/1532708616672673

Stein, S., Andreotti, V. de O., & Suša, R. (2016). 'Beyond 2015', within the modern/colonial global imaginary? Global development and higher education. Critical Studies in Education, 8487(November), 1–21.

https://doi.org/10.1080/17508487.2016.1247737

Tate, S. A., & Bagguley, P. (2017). Building the anti-racist university: next steps. Race Ethnicity and Education, 20(3), 289–299. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2016.1260227

Tian, M., & Lowe, J. a. (2013). Intercultural Identity and Intercultural Experiences of American Students in China. Journal of Studies in International Education, 1028315313496582-. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315313496582

Tolia-Kelly, D. P., & Crang, M. (2010). Affect, race, and identities visceral, viscous theories of race after social constructivism. Environment and Planning A, 42(10), 2309–2314. https://doi.org/10.1068/a43300

Toolan, M. (2012). Narrative: A critical linguistic introduction.

Torres-Olave, B., & Lee, J. J. (2019). Shifting positionalities across international locations: Embodied knowledge, time-geography, and the polyvalence of privilege. Higher Education Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1111/hequ.12216

Wetherell, M. (2012). Affect and emotion: A new social science understanding. Sage.

Wetherell, M., McCreanor, T., McConville, A., Moewaka Barnes, H., & le Grice, J. (2015). Settling space and covering the nation: Some conceptual considerations in analysing affect and discourse. Emotion, Space and Society. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emospa.2015.07.005

Willis, T. Y. (2015). " And Still We Rise… " : Microaggressions and Intersectionality in the Study Abroad Experiences of Black Women. https://frontiersjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/WILLIS-FrontiersXXVI-StillWeRise.pdf

Yao, C. W. (2018). "They Don't Care About You": First-Year Chinese International "They Don't Care About You": First-Year Chinese International Students' Experiences With Neo-racism and Othering on a U.S. Students' Experiences With Neo-racism and Othering on a U.S. Campus Campus. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cehsedadfacpubhttps://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cehsedadfacpub/84

Yue, M.-B. (2000). On not looking German. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 3(2), 173–194. https://doi.org/10.1177/136754940000300202

Downloads

Published

2021-05-21

How to Cite

Hernandez, G.-L. (2021). Racial Unspeakability: Affect and Embodiment in Swiss International Higher Education Institutions. Journal of International Students, 11(S1), 108–132. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11iS1.3846