Diversity without Race

How University Internationalization Strategies Discuss International Students

Authors

  • Elizabeth Buckner
  • Punita Lumb
  • Zahra Jafarova
  • Phoebe Kang
  • Adriana Marroquin
  • You Zhang

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11iS1.3842

Keywords:

race, internationalization, diversity, higher education

Abstract

This article examines how a sample of 62 higher education institutions in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom discuss international students in their official institutionalization strategies, focusing on how ideas of race and diversity are addressed. We find that institutional strategies connect international students to an abstract notion of diversity, using visual images to portray campus environments as inclusive of racial, ethnic and religious diversity. Yet, strategy documents rarely discuss race, racialization, or racism explicitly, despite the fact that most international students in all three countries are non-white. Moreover, racial injustice is externalized as a global issue and racial diversity is instrumentalized as a source of improving institutional reputation or diversity metrics. We argue that a first step to creating more inclusive and anti-racist campuses is to acknowledge international students’ racial identities and experiences with racism in official discourses and strategies.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Elizabeth Buckner

ELIZABETH BUCKNER, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Higher Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. Her research examines how globalization affects higher education, and recent projects focus on privatization and internationalization. Her recent publications have appeared in Comparative Education Review, Higher Education, and the Sociology of Education.

Email: elizabeth.buckner@utoronto.ca ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6335-0997

Punita Lumb

PUNITA LUMB, is a PhD student in Higher Education specializing in Comparative, International and Development Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. Additionally, she coordinates programs rooted in decolonial thought for Student Life at the University of Toronto. Her primary research interests are international and comparative higher education, critical race, decolonial and postcolonial theory. Email:punita.lumb@utoronto.ca   ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8944-549X

 

Zahra Jafarova

ZAHRA JAFAROVA, is a PhD student in Higher Education specializing in Comparative, International and Development Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. For the past 7 years, she has worked as a coordinator of European Commissions’ Erasmus+ Capacity Building in Higher Education projects and international education. Her research interests are politics of higher education, privatization and internationalization. Email: zahra.jafarova@mail.utoronto.ca

ORCID:https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7998-4254

Phoebe Kang

PHOEBE KANG is a doctoral candidate in the Educational Leadership and Policy Program at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) at the University of Toronto, Canada. Over the past 15 years, Ms. Kang has worked in curriculum development and as an adult English language educator at various Universities and Colleges in Ontario. Her research interests are international students' equity and policy analysis in higher education contexts. Email: ekang@mail.utoronto.ca

ORCID:https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1215-0917

Adriana Marroquin

ADRIANA MARROQUIN is a PhD student in Higher Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto. Within the field of comparative international education, her areas of interest include international student experience, ethical, inclusive and sustainable internationalization and international academic relations. Adriana is part of a research project team that is empirically examining how different higher education institutions in Canada and the world frame and practice internationalization. Email: adriana.marroquin@mail.utoronto.ca

ORCID:https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3420-9190

You Zhang

YOU ZHANG, is a PhD student at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. Her research interests are internationalization and regionalization of higher education. Her recent publications have appeared in Sustainability, Higher Education, and the Canadian Journal of Higher Education. Email: youzhang.zhang@mail.utoronto.ca  ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1253-9786

 

References

Ahmed, S. (2007). ‘You end up doing the document rather than doing the doing’: Diversity, race equality and the politics of documentation. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(4), 590–609.

Andrade, M. S. (2006). International students in English-speaking universities: Adjustment factors. Journal of Research in International Education, 5(2), 131–154. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475240906065589

Applebaum, B. (2019). Remediating campus climate: Implicit bias training is not enough. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 38(2), 129–141.

Banks, J. A., & Banks, C. A. M. (2019). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives. John Wiley & Sons.

Bhabha, H. K. (1994). The location of culture (2nd Ed.). Routledge.

Brown, L., & Jones, I. (2013). Encounters with racism and the international student experience. Studies in Higher Education, 38(7), 1004–1019. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2011.614940

Buckner, E. (2019). The internationalization of higher education: National interpretations of a global model. Comparative Education Review, 63(3), 315–336. https://doi.org/10.1086/703794

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. Sage.

Chen, Y. W. (2006). Intercultural friendship from the perspective of East Asian international students. China Media Research, 2(3), 43–58.

Childress, L. K. (2009). Planning for internationalization by investing in faculty. Journal of International & Global Studies, 1(1).

Croom, N. N. (2017). Promotion beyond tenure: Unpacking racism and sexism in the experiences of Black womyn professors. The Review of Higher Education, 40(4), 557–583.

Dixson, A. D., & Rousseau, C. K. (2005). And we are still not saved: Critical race theory in education ten years later. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8(1), 7–27.

Fish, S. (1997). Boutique multiculturalism, or why liberals are incapable of thinking about hate speech. Critical Inquiry, 23(2), 378–395.

Ford, K. S., & Patterson, A. N. (2019). “Cosmetic diversity”: University websites and the transformation of race categories. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 12(2), 99–114. http://doi.org/10.1037/dhe0000092

Foste, Z., & Irwin, L. (2020). Applying Critical Whiteness Studies in College Student Development Theory and Research. Journal of College Student Development, 61(4), 439-455. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2020.0050

Gillborn, D. (2005). Education policy as an act of white supremacy: Whiteness, critical race theory and education reform. Journal of Education Policy, 20(4), 485–505.

Glasener, K. M., Martell, C. A., & Posselt, J. R. (2019). Framing diversity: Examining the place of race in institutional policy and practice post-affirmative action. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 12(1), 3–16. https://doi.org/10.1037/dhe0000086

Guo, Y., & Guo, S. (2017). Internationalization of Canadian higher education: Discrepancies between policies and international student experiences. Studies in Higher Education, 42(5), 851–868.

Hall, S. (2018). Essential Essays, Volume 2: Identity and Diaspora. Duke University Press.

Hanassab, S. (2006). Diversity, international students, and perceived discrimination: Implications for educators and counselors. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(2), 157–172.

Harper, S. R. (2012). Race without racism: How higher education researchers minimize racist institutional norms. The Review of Higher Education, 36(1), 9–29.

Haynes, C. (2017). Dismantling the white supremacy embedded in our classrooms: White faculty in pursuit of more equitable educational outcomes for racially minoritized students. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 29(1), 87–107.

Henry, F., Dua, E., Kobayashi, A., James, C., Li, P., Ramos, H., & Smith, M. S. (2017). Race, racialization and Indigeneity in Canadian universities. Race Ethnicity and Education, 20(3), 300–314.

Hiraldo, P. (2010). The role of critical race theory in higher education. The Vermont Connection, 31(7), 53-59.

Houshmand, S., Spanierman, L. B., & Tafarodi, R. W. (2014). Excluded and avoided: Racial microaggressions targeting Asian international students in Canada. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(3), 377.

Institute of International Education. (2019). Project Atlas 2019 Release. https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Project-Atlas/Explore-Data/Infographics/2019-Project-Atlas-Infographics

Iverson, S. V. (2007). Camouflaging power and privilege: A critical race analysis of university diversity policies. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43(5), 586–611.

Jones, E. (2013). Internationalization and employability: The role of intercultural experiences in the development of transferable skills. Public Money & Management, 33(2), 95–104.

Jones, E. (2017). Problematising and reimagining the notion of ‘international student experience.’ Studies in Higher Education, 42(5), 933–943. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2017.1293880

Kenyon, K., Frohard-Dourlent, H., & Roth, W. D. (2012). Falling between the cracks: Ambiguities of international student status in Canada. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 42(1), 1–24.

Khoo, S. (2011). Ethical globalisation or privileged internationalisation? Exploring global citizenship and internationalisation in Irish and Canadian universities. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 9(3–4), 337–353.

Krippendorff, K. (2018). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Sage publications.

Downloads

Published

2021-05-21

How to Cite

Buckner, E. ., Lumb, P., Jafarova, Z., Kang, P., Marroquin, A., & Zhang, Y. (2021). Diversity without Race: How University Internationalization Strategies Discuss International Students . Journal of International Students, 11(S1), 32–49. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11iS1.3842