Stress, Sleep and Performance in International and Domestic University Students
Keywords:perceived stress, acculturative stress, sleep quality, academic performance, international students, domestic students
Stress and poor sleep quality are serious and common problems among university students that could have detrimental effects on their academic performance. International students may experience greater difficulty than domestic students because they also need to deal with the challenges associated with moving to a new culture. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress (perceived and acculturative), sleep quality and academic performance by comparing them between international and domestic students. Perceived stress negatively correlated with sleep quality. However, no relationship was found between acculturative stress and sleep quality, between sleep quality and academic performance, and between stress (perceived and acculturative) and academic performance. Differences on perceived stress and sleep quality between international and domestic students were found. Perceived stress was found to be an important factor that requires the university to focus on effective stress management programs that could be useful for achieving better sleep quality.
Adlaf, E. M., Gliksman, L., Demers, A., & Newton-Taylor, B. (2010). The prevalence of elevated psychological distress among Canadian undergraduates: Findings from the 1998 Canadian campus survey. Journal of American College Health, 50, 67-72. doi:10.1080/07448480109596009
Akerstedt, T., Kecklund, G., & Axelsson, J. (2007). Impaired sleep after bedtime stress and worries. Biological Psychology, 76(3), 170-173. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.07.010
Akerstedt, T., Orsini, N., Petersen, H., Axelsson, J., Lekander, M., & Keclund, G. (2012). Predicting sleep quality from stress and prior sleep – A study of day-to-day covariation across six weeks. Sleep Medicine, 6, 674-679. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2011.12.013
Albeg, L. J., & Castro-Olivo, S. M. (2014). The relationship between mental health, acculturative stress and academic performance in a Latino middle sample. Contemporary School Psychology, 18(3), 178-186. doi:10.1007/s40688-014-0010-1
Altbach, P. G., & Knight, J. (2007). The internationalization of higher education: motivations and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3-4), 290-305. doi:10.1177/1028315307303542
Altun, I., Cmar, N., & Dede, C. (2012). The contributing factors to poor sleep experience in according to the university students: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 17(6), 557-561. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3634295/
Ansari, W. E., & Stock, C. (2010). Is the health and wellbeing of university students associated with their academic performance? Cross sectional findings from the United Kingdom. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(2), 509-527. doi:10.3390/ijerph7020509
Azizi, M. (2012). Relationship between happiness and stress coping strategies among Zabol university students in academic year of 2010-11. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 6(2), 163-166.
Banjong, D. N. (2015). International students' enchanced academic performance effects of campus resources. Journal of International Students, 5(1), 132-142. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1060050.pdf
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182. Retrieved from http://www.public.asu.edu/~davidpm/classes/psy536/Baron.pdf
Beebe, D. W. (2011). Cognitive, behavioral and functional consequences of inadequate sleep in children and adolescents. The Pediatric Clinics of North America, 58(3), 649-665. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2011.03.002
Borgonovi, F., & Pál, J. (2016). A Framework for the analysis of student well-being in the PSIA 2015 study: Being 15 in 2015. OECD Education Working Papers(140).
Cates, M. E., Clark, A., Woolley, T. W., & Saunders, A. (2015). Sleep quality among pharmacy students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 79(1), 1-6. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4346821/
Chambel, M. J., & Curral, L. (2005). Stress in academic life: work characteristics as predictors of student well-being and performance. Applied Psychology, 54(1), 135-147. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00200.x
Chokroverty, S. (2009). Sleep Disorders Medicine. Kennedy Blvd: Saunders Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-0-7506-7584-0.00041-0
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4), 385-396. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6668417
Desouky, E. M., Lawend, j. A., & Awed, H. A. (2015). Relationship between quality of sleep and academic performance among female nursing students. International Journal of Nursing Didactics, 5(1), 6-13. doi:10.15520/ijnd.2015.vol5.iss9.111.06-13
Diekelmann, S., & Born, J. (2010). The memory function of sleep. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(2), 114-126. doi:10.1038/nrn2762
Dixit, A., Goyal, A., Thawani, R., & Vaney, N. (2012). Psychomotor performance of medical students: effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 34(2), 129-132. doi:10.4103/0253-7176.101777
Doane, L. D., & Thurston, E. C. (2014). Associations among sleep, daily experiences and loneliness in adolescence: evidence of moderating and bidirectional pathways. Journal of Adolescence, 37(2), 145-154. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.11.009
Eliasson, A., Eliasson, A., Gould, B., & Eliasson, A. (2002). Association of sleep and academic performance. Sleep and Breathing, 6(1), 45-48. doi:10.1007/s11325-002-0045-9
Engle-Friedman, M., Riela, S., Golan, R., Ventuneac, A., Davis, C., Jefferson, A., & Major, D. (2003). The effect of sleep loss on next day effort. Journal of Sleep Research, 12(2), 113-124. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2869.2003.00351.x
Forbes-Mewett, H., & Sawyer, A.-M. (2016). International students and mental health. Journal of International Students, 6(3), 661-667. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1100336.pdf
Furnham, A. (2004). Foreign students: education and culture shock. Psychologist, 7(1), 16-19. Retrieved from https://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-17/edition-1/foreign-students-education-and-culture-shock
Gikunda, R. M., Abura, G. O., Kiriungi, L., & Muchiri, J. M. (2014). The effect of sleep quantity on performance of students in public universities, Kenya. Merit Research Journal of Education and Review, 2(6), 113-118. Retrieved from http://www.meritresearchjournals.org/er/index.htm
Hall, M., Buysse, D. J., Nowell, P. D., Nofzinger, E. A., Houck, P., Reynolds, C. F., & Kupfer, D. J. (2000). Symptoms of stress and depression as correlates of sleep in primary insomnia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62(2), 227-230. doi:10.1097/00006842-200003000-00014
Hamilton, N. A., Catley, D., & Karlson, C. W. (2007). Sleep and the affective response to stress and pain. Health Psychology, 23(3), 288-295. doi:10.1037/0278-6126.96.36.1998
Haq, M. A., Dar, I. S., Aslam, M., & Mahmood, Q. K. (2018). Psychometric study of depression, anxiety and stress among university students. journal of Public Health: From Theory to Practice, 26(2), 211-217. doi:s10389-017-0856-6
He, Y., & Banham, H. (2009). International student academic performance: some statistical evidence and its implications. American Journal of Business Education, 2(5), 89-100. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1052845.pdf
Hechanova-Alampay, R., Beehr, T. A., Neil, C. D., & Van Horn, R. K. (2002). Adjustment and strain among domestic and international student sojourners. School Psychology International, 23(4), 458-474. doi:10.1177/0143034302234007
Hense, S., Barba, G., Pohlabeln, H., Henauw, S. D., Marild, S., Molnar, D., . . . Ahrens, W. (2011). Factors that influence weekday sleep duration in European children. Sleep, 34(5), 633-639. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21532957
Hoswell, A. J., Jahrig, J. C., & Powell, R. A. (2004). Sleep quality, sleep propensity and academic performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 99(2), 525-535. doi:10.2466/PMS.99.5.525-535
IBM Corp. (2012). SPSS statistics for windows. IBM Corp. Armonk, New York.
Kaur, K. (2017, March). The economic impact of international students. Retrieved from Universities UK: http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/policy-and-analysis/reports/Documents/2017/briefing-economic-impact-international-students.pdf
Kayaba, M., Ihara, T., Kusaka, H., Iizuka, S., Miyamoto, K., & Honda, Y. (2014). Association between sleep and residential environments in the summertime in Japan. Sleep Medicine, 15(5), 556-564. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2013.11.784
Khan, A. A., Nadeem, M., Saleem, M., & Aslam, N. (2010). Measuring the mediating role of locus of control on stress among the students of the Islamia university of Bahawalpur. Journal of Educational Research, 13(2), para.1.
Khawaja, N. G., & Dempsey, J. (2008). A comparison of international and domestic tertiary students in Australia. Australian Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 18, 30-46. doi:10.1375/ajgc.18.1.30
Kilinc, A., & Granello, P. F. (2003). Overall life satisfaction and help-seeking attitudes of Turish college students in the United States: implications for college counselors. Journal of College Counseling, 6(1), 56-68. doi:10.1002/j.2161-1882.2003.tb00227.x
Kosheleva, E. Y., Amarnor, A. J., & Chernobilsky, E. (2015). Stress factors among international and domestic students in Russia. Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences, 200, 460-466. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.096
Lemma, S., Gelaye, B., Berhane, Y., Worku, A., & Williams, M. A. (2012). Sleep quality and its psychological correlates among university students in Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry, 12(237), 1-7. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-237
Louca, M., & Short, M. A. (2014). The effect of one night's sleep deprivation on adolescent neurobehavioral performance. Sleep, 37(11), 1799-1807. doi:10.5665/sleep.4174
Lund, H. G., Reider, B., Whiting, A. B., & Prichard, J. (2010). Sleep Patterns and Predictors of Disturbed Sleep in a Large Population of College Students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(2), 124-132. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.06.016
McEwen, B. S. (1998). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New Englang Journal of Medicine, 338, 171-179. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199801153380307
Mirghani, H. O., Mohammed, O. S., Almurtadha, Y. M., & Ahmed, M. S. (2015). Good sleep quality is associated with better academic performance among Sudanese medical students. BMC Research Notes, 8(706), 1-5. doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1712-9
National Sleep Foundation. (2017). Inside your bedroom. Retrieved from National Sleep Foundation: https://sleepfoundation.org/bedroom/
OECD. (2019). PISA 2018 Results: What students know and can do. OECD, 1. doi:https://doi.org/10.1787/19963777
Omeri, A., Malcolm, P., Ahern, M., & Wellington, B. (2003). Meeting the challenges of cultural diversity in the academic setting. Nurse Education in Practice, 3(1), 5-22. doi:10.1016/S1471-5953(02)00026-4
Oragnisation Economic Co-operation Development. (2015, Nov 30). New OECD report summarises global mobility trends. Retrieved from ICEF Monitor: http://monitor.icef.com/2015/11/new-oecd-report-summarises-global-mobility-trends/
Organization Economic Co-operation Development. (2015, Nov 30). New OECD report summarises global mobility trends. Retrieved from ICEF Monitor: http://monitor.icef.com/2015/11/new-oecd-report-summarises-global-mobility-trends/
Persson, P., & Zakrisson, A. (2016). Stress. Acta Physiologica, 216(2), 149-152. doi:10.1111/apha.12641
Phang, M. M., Johl, S. K., & Cooper, B. J. (2013). Goal-efficacy framework: An examination of domestic and international accounting students' academic performance. Accounting and Finance, 54(4), 1295-1318. doi:10.1111/acfi.12024
Pilcher, J., & Walters, A. (1997). How sleep deprivation affects psychological variables related to colleges students' cognitive performance. Journal of American College Health, 46(3), 121-126. doi:10.1080/07448489709595597
Rafidah, K., Azizah, A., Norzaidi, M. D., Chong, S. C., Salwani, M. I., & Noraini, I. (2009). The impact of perceived stress and stress factors on academic performance of pre-diploma science students: A Malaysian study. International Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 2(1), 13-26. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299747574_The_impact_of_perceived_stress_and_stress_factors_on_academic_performance_of_pre-diploma_science_students_a_Malaysian_study
Safhi, M. A., Alafif, R. A., Alamoudi, N. M., Alamoudi, M. M., Alghamdi, W. A., Albishri, S. F., & Rizk, H. (2020). The association of stress with sleep quality among medical students at King Abdulaziz University. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 9(3), 1662-1667. doi:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_745_19
Saleh, D., Camart, N., & Romo, L. (2017). Predictors of stress in college students. Frontier in Psychology, 8(19), 1-8. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00019
Scoot, C. (2010). Optimal stress. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Sharkin, B. S. (2006). College students in distress: A resource guide for faculty, staff and campus community. New York: Haworth Press.
Siraj, H. H., Salam, A., Roslan, R., Hasan, N. A., Jin, T. H., & Othman, M. N. (2014). Stress and its association with the academic performance of undergraduate fourth year medical students at university Kebangsaan Malaysia. International Medical Journal Malaysia, 13(1), 19-24. Retrieved from http://journals.iium.edu.my/imjm/index.php/eimj/article/view/178
Smart, K. (2019). Investigating the effects of sleep hygiene education on sleep behaviours and academic performance in community college students. Sleep Medicine, 64, S355-S356.
Stickgold, R. (2005). Sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Nature, 437(27), 1272-1278. doi:10.1038/nature04286
Sullivan, C., & Kashubeck-West, S. (2015). The interplay of international students' acculturative stress, social support and acculturation modes. Journal of International Students, 5(1), 1-11. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270579101_The_interplay_of_international_students%27_acculturative_stress_social_support_and_acculturation_modes
Suresh, S. (2008). Stress and coping strategies. Management and Labour studies, 33(4), 482-487. doi:10.1177/0258042X0803300403
Taylor, D. J., & Bramoweth, A. D. (2010). Patterns and consequences of inadequate sleep in college students: substance use and motor vehicle accidents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(6), 610-612. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.12.010
Van-Rooijen, L. (1986). Advanced students' adaptation to college. Higher Education, 15(3-4), 197-209. doi:10.1007/BF00129211
Wakeman, C. (2010). Reality-Based Leadership: Ditch the Drama, Restores Sanity to the Workplace & Turn Excuses into Results. CA, San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
Wang, K. T., Wei, M., Zhao, R., Chaung, C.-C., & Li, F. (2015). The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale: development and psychometric evaluation. Psychological Assessment, 27(1), 42-53. doi:10.1037/pas0000027
Wu, H.-p., Garza, E., & Guzman, N. (2015). International student’s challenge and adjustment to college. Education Research international, 2015, 1-9. doi:10.1155/2015/202753
Yang, B., & Oldfsson, T. (2015). A questionnaire survey on sleep environment conditioned by different cooling modes in multistorey residential buildings of Singapore. Indoor and Built Environment, 26(1), 21-31. doi:10.1177/1420326X15604206
Zhai, X., Wu, N., Koriyama, S., Wang, C., Shi, M., Huang, T., . . . Fan, X. (2021). Mediating effect of perceived stress on the assoication betweeen physcial activity and sleep quality among chinese college students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(1), 289. doi:10.3390/ijerph18010289
Zhao, C.-M., Kuh, G. D., & Carini, R. M. (2005). A comparison of international student and American student engagement in effective educational practices. The Journal of Higher Education, 76(2), 209-231. doi:10.1353/jhe.2005.0018
Zunhammer, M., Eichhammer, P., & Busch, V. (2014). Sleep quality during exam stress: the role of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine. PLoS One, 9(10), 1-7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109490
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of International Students
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
All published articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported License.