Principal Candidates’ Sense of Efficacy: Can They Lead During a Pandemic?


  • Kimberly W. Money Appalachian State University, USA
  • Linda C. Pacifici Appalachian State University, USA



crisis, efficacy, equity, leadership, teacher, pandemic, principal


Principal candidates’ sense of self-efficacy is critical for their professional development. Analysis of a self-efficacy survey provided the authors with valuable insights into areas needed for program development. The purpose of this research-based essay is to report on data analysis results learned about the self-efficacy of 10 school leadership students during a summer principalship course. These results provide information about implications as well as specific suggestions for leadership program improvement related to crisis situations. 


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Kimberly W. Money, Appalachian State University, USA

Kimberly W. Money, EdD, is an Assistant Professor in School Administration in the Leadership and Education Studies Department, Appalachian State University. Her major research interests lie in the area of teacher and principal preparation, principal efficacy, and data-driven instructional leadership. Email:

Linda C. Pacifici, Appalachian State University, USA

Linda C. Pacifici, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Curriculum and Instruction Department, Reich College of Education, Appalachian State University. Her research interests are teacher preparation, curriculum program development, and instructional technology. Email:


Abernathy, D. (2018). Addressing skills, knowledge and self-efficacy in the online development of school leaders. Journal for the Advancement of Educational Research International, 12(1), 47-57.

Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachandran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H. Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved July 21, 2020, from

Map: Coronavirus and School Closures (2020, March 6). Education Week. Retrieved July 21, 2020, from

North Carolina Department of Public Instruction (2013). North Carolina standards for school executives. Retrieved July 20, 2020, from

Smith, L., & Riley, D. (2012). School leadership in times of crisis. School Leadership & Management, 32(1), 57-71.

Tschannen-Moran, M. (n.d.). Principal Questionnaire.