The Effects of Online Learning Experience During the COVID-19 Pandemic on Students’ Satisfaction, Adjustment, Performance, and Loyalty

Evidence from Poland


  • Michał Wilczewski University of Warsaw
  • Oleg Gorbaniuk John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
  • Terry Mughan Portland State University
  • Ewelina Wilczewska SWPS University in Warsaw



international students, online learning, academic adjustment, academic performance, student satisfaction, university support, COVID-19


This research investigates the student online learning experience (SOLE) during the 2020 spring Covid-19 pandemic. We collected quantitative data through an online survey from 362 international and 488 domestic students at a large Polish University. Correlation and path analysis within a conceptual model of SOLE and its academic outcomes established that (1) SOLE explained adjustment, performance, satisfaction, and loyalty, (2) academic adjustment predicts performance, satisfaction, and loyalty, (3) that academic performance and satisfaction predict student loyalty, and (4) that academic performance predicts satisfaction. Interestingly, time spent in quarantine/self-isolation did not exert any effect on academic outcomes in SOLE. Moreover, qualitative data collected via narrative interviews with 13 international and domestic students developed our understanding of SOLE and its outcomes. We propose some research and practice implications for universities to enhance SOLE.

Author Biographies

Michał Wilczewski, University of Warsaw

Michał Wilczewski, PhD, is Associate Professor of the Faculty of Applied Linguistics at the University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. He maintains an active research agenda with a particular focus on intercultural communication in international business and intercultural experiences of international students, business expats, and missionaries. Email:

Oleg Gorbaniuk, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin

Oleg Gorbaniuk, PhD, is Associate Professor of the Institute of Psychology at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland. His research focuses on social perception, psycholexical studies, methodology, and consumer behavior. Email:

Terry Mughan, Portland State University

TERENCE MUGHAN, PhD, is Adjunct Faculty at the School of Business, Portland State University, Oregon, USA. His major research interests lie in the area of languages in international business, intercultural communication and international management. Email:

Ewelina Wilczewska, SWPS University in Warsaw

Ewelina Wilczewska, MA, is an MA psychology student at the SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland. Her interests center around psychological aspects of intercultural experiences and studying foreign languages. Email:


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How to Cite

Wilczewski, M., Gorbaniuk, O., Mughan, T., & Wilczewska, E. (2021). The Effects of Online Learning Experience During the COVID-19 Pandemic on Students’ Satisfaction, Adjustment, Performance, and Loyalty : Evidence from Poland. Journal of International Students, 12(3).



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