Self-Directed Learning for Nonnative English-Speaking Graduate Students Across Disciplines

Translanguaging Practices and Perspectives




higher education, nonnative English-speaking graduate student, self-directed learning, translanguaging


The influx of international students in U.S. colleges has resulted in linguistically diverse classrooms, raising attention to translanguaging practices. The purpose of this study is to examine the self-directed translanguaging practices and perspectives of nonnative English-speaking (NNES) graduate students in the U.S. university setting by using narrative stories, individual interviews, and focus group discussion. Twelve NNES graduate students from Asian countries participated in this research. These students demonstrated their self-management, motivation and persistence, and self-monitoring in their academic learning. Although they reported the difficulties from academic English language, they identified the value of translanguaging practices, and they developed some characteristics of autonomous learning due to “teacher-directed translanguaging” and “student-directed translanguaging.” Scaffolding and collaborative learning benefited and effectively engaged NNES graduate students in self-directed learning.

Author Biography

Hong Shi, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, China

Hong Shi, PhD, is a lecturer in the School of Foreign Languages at China University of Petroleum-Beijing. Her major research interests lie in the area of instructed SLA, foreign language teaching, English for academic purposes, and teaching materials assessment.


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How to Cite

Shi, H. (2021). Self-Directed Learning for Nonnative English-Speaking Graduate Students Across Disciplines: Translanguaging Practices and Perspectives. Journal of International Students, 11(1), 195–215.



Research Articles (English)