Pre-service Teachers' Perceptions on Global Citizenship and Online Education in a Virtual Exchange Context


  • Aigul Rakisheva University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
  • Lu Xu University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign



Virtual exchange, global citizenship, pre-service teachers, digital skills


As part of a virtual exchange program, this mixed-method research investigated the pre-service teachers’ initial attitudes and perceptions towards global citizenship and online education. In our initial findings,participants demonstrated a cautiously optimistic attitude that they believed online teaching could be effective, but more training isneeded for pre-service teachers. Moreover, the participants who had Virtual Exchange (VE) experience before had a more critical attitude toward online teaching and learning. In addition, most pre-service teachers showed limited familiarity with the concept of global citizenship education. Though they appreciate the importance of global citizenship education, they expressed concerns about cultural and language barriers to implementing it in their classrooms. These results provided a baseline of pre-service teachers and shed light on future design and implementation of VE in initial teacher education.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Aigul Rakisheva, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Aigul Rakisheva is a third-year Ph.D. student at the University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign, USA. She is currently pursuing her doctoral degree in Education Policy, Organization, and Leadership Department with a Global Studies in Education concentration. Aigul is actively engaged in research and teaching activities at UIUC. Her research focuses on Virtual Exchange, Information and Communication Technologies, and Initial Teacher Education, contributing to various research projects in these areas.

Lu Xu, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Lu Xu is a third year Ph.D. student in Education Policy, Organization and Leadership program in the College of Education, University of Illinois, with a concentration in Global Studies in Education. With the general interest in global study and education, Lu’s research mainly focuses on international teacher education, global citizenship education, virtual exchange and online teaching. In addition, Lu engages in DEI research related to LGBTQ and Asian American communities. Also, Lu serves as teaching and research assistant at the College of Education.



Dooly, M., & Sadler, R. (2013). Filling in the gaps: Linking theory and practice through telecollaboration in teacher education. ReCALL, 25(1), 4–29.

Flogie, A., Gutierrez, B. F., Martinc, U., Nicolaou, A., O’Dowd, R., Sauro, S., & Zemljak, D. (2021). Developing Virtual Innovation and Support Networks for In-Service and Pre-Service Teachers. UMBC Faculty Collection.

Godwin-Jones, R. (2019). Telecollaboration as an approach to developing intercultural communication competence. Language Learning & Technology.

Hauck, M., & Müller-Hartmann, A. (Eds.). (2020). Virtual exchange and 21st century teacher education: short papers from the 2019 EVALUATE conference. Research-publishing. Net.

Helm, F. (2018). Emerging identities in virtual exchange. Research-publishing. Net.

Kramsch, C., A'Ness, F., & Lam, W. S. E. (2000). Authenticity and authorship in the computer-mediated acquisition of L2 literacy. Language Learning & Technology, 4(2), 72-95.

Kopish, M., & Marques, W. (2020). Leveraging technology to promote global citizenship in teacher education in the United States and Brazil. Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 5(1), 45-69.

Lanham, C. C., & Voskuil, C. (2022). Virtual exchange: Expanding access to global learning. In Academic voices (pp. 3-14). Chandos Publishing.

Lawrence, G., & Spector-Cohen, E. (2018). Examining international telecollaboration in language teacher education. In Cross-cultural perspectives on technology-enhanced language learning (pp. 322-345). IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5463-9.ch018

Lin, C. C. (2021). Using Virtual Exchange to Foster Global Competence and Collaborative Leadership in Teacher Education. Dual Language Research and Practice Journal, 4(1).

Nicolaou, A. (2021). Technological mediation in a global competence virtual exchange project: a critical digital literacies perspective. Tertiary education language learning: a collection of research, 111.

O'Dowd, R., & Lewis, T. (Eds.). (2016). Online intercultural exchange: Policy, pedagogy, practice. Routledge.

O'Dowd, R. (2018). From telecollaboration to virtual exchange: State-of-the-art and the role of UNICollaboration in moving forward. Research-publishing. net, 1, 1-23.

Sauro, S., Flogie, A., Gutierrez, B.F., Martinc, U., Nicolaou, A., O’Dowd, R. & Zemljak, D. (2021). Developing Virtual Innovation and Support Networks for In-Service and Pre-Service Teachers.

The EVALUATE Group. (2019). Evaluating the impact of virtual exchange on initial teacher education: a European policy experiment.

Trapè, R. (2020). Developing global citizenship through real-world tasks – a virtual exchange between North American university students and Italian upper-secondary school students. In M. Hauck & A. Müller-Hartmann (Eds.), Virtual exchange and 21st century teacher education: Short papers from the 2019 EVALUATE conference (1st ed., pp. 147–155).

Witt, A., Solberg J., Cabrera A., Souefi N., Hou Y., Lunardon M., Mazid S., Merkle C., Rakisheva A., Rizki T., Xu A., & Xu L. (2023). Section II: International and Global Online Teaching Discoveries. In C. Mason (Eds), Teaching global citizenship in a global pandemic: Learning in a virtual world. IAP– Information Age Publishing.;!!DZ3fjg!8t7hV9X27Ot30M2_1zHGgzsa9OPfvFPqoji0Mw-NZeErtf3Lc9EGSAb2AsWQkw_DZfZxDkEp4MfBT1lc4p0$




How to Cite

Rakisheva, A., & Xu, L. (2024). Pre-service Teachers’ Perceptions on Global Citizenship and Online Education in a Virtual Exchange Context. Journal of Comparative & International Higher Education, 15(5(S).



2024 Emerging Scholar Summary - 16(6) 2024