Acculturative Stress, Chinese Proactive Coping, Future Time Perspective, and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese International Students in the U.S.: A Moderation Model

Authors

  • Charles Ridley Texas A & M University
  • Siming Xie

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32674/jcihe.v16i2.5644

Keywords:

acculturative stress, Chinese international students, proactive coping, subjective well-being, time perspective

Abstract

Chinese international students on U.S. college campuses often experience acculturative stress, a phenomenon concerned with adapting to a new culture. However, there is a paucity of research about how these students use culturally relevant strategies to cope with this stress and enhance their well-being. Based on Heppner et al.’s (2014) cultural and contextual model of coping, this study explores a three-way interaction between Chinese international students’ acculturative stress, proactive coping, and future time perspective in predicting their subjective well-being. Participants (N = 198) were undergraduate, graduate, and other status students (in Optional Practical Training) attending U.S. colleges and universities who completed an online survey. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to investigate the moderation model. Results indicated acculturative stress and subjective well-being were negatively correlated. Despite no moderation effects, proactive coping, future time perspective, and perceived English proficiency were associated with subjective well-being. Limitations, future research directions, and implications for clinical practice are discussed.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Allemand, M., Hill, P. L., Ghaemmaghami, P., & Martin, M. (2012). Forgivingness and subjective well-being in adulthood: The moderating role of future time perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 46(1), 32-39. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2011.11.004

Anagnostopoulos, F., & Griva, F. (2012). Exploring time perspective in Greek young adults: Validation of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and relationships with mental health indicators. Social Indicators Research, 106(1), 41-59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-011-9792-y

Aspinwall, L. G., & Taylor, S. E. (1997). A stitch in time: Self-regulation and proactive coping. Psychological Bulletin, 121(3), 417-436. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.121.3.417

Bai, J. (2016). Development and validation of the Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese college students in the United States (ASSCS). Psychological Assessment, 28(4), 443-447. http://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000198

Berry, J. W. (1970). Marginality, stress, and ethnic identification in an acculturated Aboriginal community. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 239-252. https://doi.org//10.1177/135910457000100303

Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46(1), 5-68. https://doi.org/10.1080/026999497378467

Berry, J. W. (2003). Conceptual approaches to acculturation. In K. M. Chun, P. B. Organista, & G. Marín (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 17–37). American Psychological Association.

Berry, J. W. (2006). Acculturative stress. In P. T. P. Wong & L. C. J. Wong (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural perspectives on stress and coping (pp. 287–298). Springer. https//doi.org//10,1007/0-387-26238-5_12

Bertram, D. M., Poulakis, M., Elsasser, B. S., & Kumar, E. (2014). Social support and acculturation in Chinese international students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 42(2), 107-124. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2014.00048.x

Brinson, J. A., & Kottler, J. (1995). International students in counseling: Some alternative models. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 9(3), 57-70. https//doi.org/10.1300/j035v09n03_05

Chang, Y., Chien, C., & Shen, L. F. (2021). Telecommuting during the coronavirus pandemic: Future time orientation as a mediator between proactive coping and perceived work productivity in two cultural samples. Personality and Individual Differences, 171, 110508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110508

Chen, T., Liu, L. L., Cui, J. F., Chen, X. J., Shi, H. S., Neumann, D. L., Shum, D. H., Wang, Y., & Chan, R. C. (2017). Moderating effect of age on the association between future time perspective and preventive coping. PsyCh Journal, 6(3), 185-193. https://doi.org/10.1002/pchj.172

Chen, J. A., Liu, L., Zhao, X., & Yeung, A. S. (2015). Chinese international students: An emerging mental health crisis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(11), 879-880. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2015.06.022

Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2014). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Psychology Press.

Coudin, G., & Lima, M. L. (2011). Being well as time goes by: Future time perspective and well-being. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 11(2), 219-232. https://hdl.handle.net/10071/9935

Diener, E. (2009). The science of well-being: The collected works of Ed Diener (Vol. 37). Springer Science & Business Media.

Diener, E. (2021). Subjective well-being in cross-cultural perspective. In Key issues in cross-cultural psychology (pp. 319-330). Garland Science.

Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of personality assessment, 49(1), 71-75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13

Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54(1), 403-425. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145056

Drake, L., Duncan, E., Sutherland, F., Abernethy, C., & Henry, C. (2008). Time perspective and correlates of wellbeing. Time & Society, 17(1), 47-61. htpps://doi.org/10.1177/0961461463X07086304

Du, Y., & Wei, M. (2015). Acculturation, enculturation, social connectedness, and subjective well-being among Chinese international students. The Counseling Psychologist, 43(2), 299-325. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000014565712

Dwivedi, A., & Rastogi, R. (2017). Proactive coping, time perspective and life satisfaction: A study on emerging adulthood. Journal of Health Management, 19(2), 264-274. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972063417699689

Franco. M., Hsiao, Y.-S., Gnilka, P. B., & Ashby, J. S. (2019). Acculturative stress, social support, and career outcome expectations among international students. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 19(2), 275-291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10775-018-9380-7

Ge, L., & Durst, D. (2022). The auto-ethnographic inquiry of a female Chinese graduate student in Canada: Challenging, accepting, and transforming. Journal of Comparative & International Higher Education, 14(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.32674/jcihe.v14il.3193

Gebregergis, W. T., Huang, F., & Hong, J. (2019). Cultural intelligence, age and prior travel experience as predictors of acculturative stress and depression among international students studying in China. Journal of International Students, 9(2), 511-534. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v9i2.964

Gover, A. R., Harper, S. B., & Langton, L. (2020). Anti-Asian hate crime during the COVID-19 pandemic: Exploring the reproduction of inequality. American journal of criminal justice, 45(4), 647-667.

Greenglass, E. R., & Fiksenbaum, L. (2009). Proactive coping, positive affect, and well-being: Testing for mediation using path analysis. European Psychologist, 14(1), 29-39. htpps://doi.org/1027/1016-9040.14.1.29

Greenglass, E. R., Marques, S., Deridder, M., & Behl, S. (2005). Positive coping and mastery in a rehabilitation setting. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 28(4), 331-339. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004356-200512000-00005

Greenglass, E. R., Schwarzer, R., & Taubert, S. (1999). The Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI): A multidimensional research instrument. Retrieved from http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~health/greenpci.htm

Guthrie, L. C., Butler, S. C., & Ward, M. M. (2009). Time perspective and socioeconomic status: A link to socioeconomic disparities in health? Social Science & Medicine, 68(12), 2145-2151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socsimed.2009.04.004

Hamamura, T., & Laird, P. G. (2014). The effect of perfectionism and acculturative stress on levels of depression experienced by East Asian international students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 42(4), 205-217. https://doi.org10.1002/j.2161-1912.2014.00055.x

Hambrick, E. P., & McCord, D. M. (2010). Proactive coping and its relation to the Five-Factor model of personality. Individual Differences Research, 8(2), 67-77.

Hansson, A., Forsell, Y., Hochwälder, J., & Hillerås, P. (2008). Impact of changes in life circumstances on subjective well-being in an adult population over a 3-year period. Public Health, 122(12), 1392-1398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puke.2008.05.020

Heng, T. T. (2018). Different is not deficient: Contradicting stereotypes of Chinese international students in US higher education. Studies in higher education, 43(1), 22-36. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2016.1152466

Hernández, R. J., & Villodas, M. (2019). Collectivistic coping responses to racial microaggressions associated with Latina/o college persistence attitudes. Journal of Latinx Psychology, 7(1), 76-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/lat0000107

Heppner, P. P., Wei, M., Neville, H. A., & Kanagui-Munoz, M. (2014). A cultural and contextual model of coping. In F. T. L. Leong, L. Comas-Díaz, N. Hall, V. C. McLloyd, & J. E. Trimble (Eds.), APA handbook of multicultural psychology, Vol. 2: Applications and training (pp. 83-106). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14187-005

Hu, Z., Lin, X., Chiwanda Kaminga, A., & Xu, H. (2020). Impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on lifestyle behaviors and their association with subjective well-being among the general population in mainland China: cross-sectional study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(8), e21176. https://doi.org/10.2196/21176

Huang, S. L., & Mussap, A. J. (2018). Maladaptive perfectionism, acculturative stress and depression in Asian international university students. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 28(2), 185-196. htpps://doi.org/10.1017/gc.2016.18

Jin, L., & Acharya, L. (2022). Developing tailored messages to improve mental health and adjustment of Asian international students. Journal of International Students, 12(2), 817-842. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v12i2.3594

Keough, K. A., Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Who's smoking, drinking, and using drugs? Time perspective as a predictor of substance use. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21(2), 149-164. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15324834BA210207

Kim, B. K., Li, L. C., & Ng, G. F. (2005). The Asian American values scale--multidimensional: development, reliability, and validity. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 11(3), 187-201. https://doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.11.3.187

Kim, J., Suh, W., Kim, S., & Gopalan, H. (2012). Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: Meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 7(1), 18870. https://doi.org/10.3402/qhw.v7i0.18870

Kooij, D. T., Kanfer, R., Betts, M., & Rudolph, C. W. (2018). Future time perspective: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(8), 867-893. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000306

Le, T. T. K. (2022). Dealing with acculturative stress: How international students’ personality traits help? Journal of Comparative & International Education, 14(5A), 20-24. https://doi.org/10.32674/jcihe.v14i5A.4800

Lee, D.S., & Padilla, A.M. (2014). Acculturative stress and coping: Gender differences among Korean and Korean American university students. Journal of College Student Development 55(3), 243-262. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2014.0025

Li, Z., Heath, M. A., Jackson, A. P., Allen, G. E., Fischer, L., & Chan, P. (2017). Acculturation experiences of Chinese international students who attend American universities. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 48(1), 11-21. https://doi.org/10.1037/pro0000117

Ma, K., Pitner, R., Sakamoto, I., & Park, H. Y. (2020). Challenges in acculturation among international students from Asian Collectivist Cultures. Higher Education Studies, 10(3), 34-43. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v10n3p34

Mello, Z. R., & Worrell, F. C. (2006). The relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement among academically talented adolescents. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 29(3), 271-289. htpps://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.03.005

Mori, S. C. (2000). Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78(2), 137-144. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb02571.x

Onyedibe, M. C. C. (2019). The moderating role of proactive coping on the relationship between distress tolerance and elevated blood pressure. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 29(3), 243-248. htpps://doi.org/10.1080/14330237.2019.1616426

Ra, Y-A., & Trusty, J. (2015). Coping strategies for managing acculturative stress among Asian international students. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 37(4), 319-329. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-015-9246-3

Rice, K. G., Choi, C. C., Zhang, Y., Morero, Y. I., & Anderson, D. (2012). Self-critical perfectionism, acculturative stress, and depression among international students. The Counseling Psychologist, 40(4), 575-600. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000011427061

Richburg, K. B. (2012, July 5). Getting Chinese to stop saving and start spending is a hard sell. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/gettingchinese-to-stop-saving-and-start-spending-is-ahard-sell/2012/07/04/gJQAc7P6OW_story.html? utm_term.ee3d3d5a4957

Ridley, C. R., Sahu, A., Console, K., Surya, S., Tran, V., Xie, S., & Yin, C. (2021). The process model of multicultural counseling competence. The Counseling Psychologist, 49(4), 534-567. https;//doi.org/10.1177/0011000021992339

Rogalla, K. B. (2020). Anticipatory grief, proactive coping, social support, and growth: Exploring positive experiences of preparing for loss. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 81(1), 107-129. https://doi.org/10.1177/0030222818761461

Sailer, U., Rosenberg, P., Nima, A. A., Gamble, A., Gärling, T., Archer, T., & Garcia, D. (2014). A happier and less sinister past, a more hedonistic and less fatalistic present and a more structured future: Time perspective and well-being. PeerJ, 2, e303. http://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.303

Schwarzer, R., & Knoll, N. (2003). Positive coping: Mastering demands and searching for meaning. Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures (pp. 393-409). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/19.1037/10612-025

Schwarzer, R., & Taubert, S. (2002). Tenacious goal pursuits and striving toward personal growth: Proactive coping. In E. Frydenberg (Ed.), Beyond coping: Meeting goals, visions, and challenges (pp. 19-35). Oxford University Press.

Shao, L. (1993). Multilanguage comparability of life satisfaction and happiness measures in mainland Chinese and American students (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign).

Sullivan, C., & Kahubeck-West, S. (2015). The interplay of international students’ acculturative stress, social support, and acculturation modes. Journal of International Students, 5(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v5il.438

Tian, L., & Heppner, P. P. (2018). The development and validation of a Chinese Proactive Coping Inventory among Chinese college students. International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 7(1), 19-34. htpps://doi.org/10.1037/ipp0000081

Wang, Y., Chen, X-j., Cui, j-f., & Liu, L-l. (2015). Testing the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in the Chinese context. PsyCh Journal, 4(3), 166-175. https://doi.org/10.1002/pchj.103

Wang, C. C. D., & Mallinckrodt, B. (2006). Acculturation, attachment, and psychosocial adjustment of Chinese/Taiwanese international students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(4), 422-433. htpps://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.53.4.422

Wang, K. T., Wei, M., & Chen, H. H. (2015). Social factors in cross-national adjustment: Subjective well-being trajectories among Chinese international students. The Counseling Psychologist, 43(2), 272-298. htpps://doi.org/10.1177/0011000014566470

Ward, C. (2020). Models and measurements of acculturation. In D. L. Dinne, D. K. Forgyas, S. A. Hayes, W. J. Lonner, Merging past, present, and future in cross-cultural psychology (pp. 221-230). Garland Science. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9781003077473-32

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063

Wei, M., Heppner, P. P., Ku, T. Y., & Liao, K. Y. H. (2010). Racial discrimination stress, coping, and depressive symptoms among Asian Americans: A moderation analysis. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1(2), 136-150. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020157

Wei, M., Ku, T. Y., Russell, D. W., Mallinckrodt, B., & Liao, K. Y. H. (2008). Moderating effects of three coping strategies and self-esteem on perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms: A minority stress model for Asian international students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(4), 451-462. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012511

Wei, M., Liao, K. Y-H., Heppner, P. P., Chao, R. C-L., & Ku, T-Y. (2012). Forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among Chinese international students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 97-106. htpps://doi.org/10.1037/a0025473

Yeh, C. J., & Inose, M. (2003). International students' reported English fluency, social support satisfaction, and social connectedness as predictors of acculturative stress. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 16, 15-28. https://doi:10.1080/0951507031000114058

Yi, F. (2018). Acculturative stress, meaning-in-life, collectivistic coping, and subjective well-being among Chinese international students: A moderated mediation model. Unpublished doctoral dissertation of Iowa State University. Available online at: https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/etd/16698 (accessed January 22, 2021)

Ying, Y. W., & Liese, L. H. (1990). Initial adaptation of Taiwan foreign students to the United States: The impact of prearrival variables. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18(6), 825-845. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00938066

Yoon, E., Chang, C. T., Kim, S., Clawson, A., Cleary, S. E., Hansen, M., Bruner, J. P., Chan, T. K., & Gomes, A. M. (2013). A meta-analysis of acculturation/enculturation and mental health. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(1), 15-30. htpps://doi.org/10.1037/a0030652

Yoon, E., & Portman, T. A. A. (2004). Critical issues of literature on counseling international students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32(1), 33-44. https://doi.org/10.10002/j.2161-1912.2004.tb00359.x

Yoon, E., Lee, R. M., & Goh, M. (2008). Acculturation, social connectedness, and subjective well-being. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14(3), 246-255. htpps://doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.14.3.246

Zambianchi, M., & Bitti, P. E. R. (2014). The role of proactive coping strategies, time perspective, perceived efficacy on affect regulation, divergent thinking, and family communication in promoting social well-being in emerging adulthood. Social Indicators Research, 116(2), 493-507. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-013-0307-x

Zhang, J., Mandl, H., & Wang, E. (2010). Personality, acculturation, and psychosocial adjustment of Chinese international students in Germany. Psychological Reports, 107(2), 511-525. https://doi.org/10.2466/07.09.11.17.PRO.107.5.511-525

Zhang, Y., & Jung, E. (2017). Multi-Dimensionality of Acculturative Stress among Chinese International Students: What Lies behind their Struggles? International Research and Review, 7(1), 23-43. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1170666

Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (2015). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. In Time perspective theory; review, research, and application (pp. 17-55). Springer. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2259-376X

Downloads

Published

2024-05-22

How to Cite

Ridley, C., & Xie , S. . (2024). Acculturative Stress, Chinese Proactive Coping, Future Time Perspective, and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese International Students in the U.S.: A Moderation Model. Journal of Comparative & International Higher Education, 16(2). https://doi.org/10.32674/jcihe.v16i2.5644

Issue

Section

Independent Articles