Can higher education transition to serve diversity, equity, justice, and inclusion missions without sacrificing fiscal standing?

Authors

  • Ana M. Chicas-Mosier Auburn University
  • Kaelyn J. Fogelman Auburn University
  • Tal H. Peretz Auburn University

Keywords:

diversity, equity, inclusion, recruitment and retention, university administration, university economics, university restructuring

Abstract

There is social and collaborative value in a diverse student body, faculty, and staff. Despite this, universities are slow to establish evidence-based fiscal initiatives to increase representation and retention. We review inequitable financial practices in American higher education, including in endowments, tuition and annual giving, athletics, and research and innovation. We discuss fiscal initiatives that promote diversity, equity, justice, and inclusion (DEJI) while maintaining or increasing return on investment. Historical inequities are discussed in the context of institutional standards and methods of restructuring for DEJI success. A case-study of two Very High Research Activity Institutions in Alabama is used to demonstrate areas of improvement. Restructuring for a equitable, fiscally-responsible, sustainable university system is feasible but requires changes to current standards.

Author Biographies

Ana M. Chicas-Mosier, Auburn University

Dr. Chicas-Mosier is a post-doctoral fellow in the Auburn University Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology. 

Kaelyn J. Fogelman, Auburn University

Dr. Fogelman is a post-doctoral fellow in the Auburn University School of Fisheries, Aquaculture, and Aquatic Sciences.

Tal H. Peretz, Auburn University

Dr. Peretz is an Associate Professor in the Auburn University Department of Sociology, Anthropology & Social Work.

References

Adams, J.Q. & Welsch, J.R. (1995). Multicultural Education: Strategies for Implementation in Colleges and Universities. Volume 4. ISBN-1-885890-05-2.

Alabama Department of Education. 2020-2021 Report Card. https://reportcard.alsde.edu/OverallScorePage.aspx?ReportYear=2021&SystemCode=000&SchoolCode=0000.

Alabama Established Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (ALEPSCoR). (2021). https://alepscor.org/about-alepscor/.

Allen, D. & Wolniak, G.C. (2019). Exploring the effects of tuition increases on racial/ethnic diversity at public colleges and universities. Research in Higher Education, 60: 18-43. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-018-9502-6.

American Council on Education. (2021). Understanding college and university endowments. https://www.acenet.edu/Documents/Understanding-College-and-University-Endowments.pdf

Anderson, M.L. (2017). The Benefits of College Athletic Success: An Application of the Propensity Score Design. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 99(1): 119-134. https://doi.org/10.1162/REST_a_00589.

Baade, Robert A. & Sundberg J.O. (1996). Fourth Down and Gold to Go? Assessing the Link between Athletics and Alumni Giving. Social Science Quarterly, 77(4): 789-803.

Bellini, E., Ottaviano, G.I.P., Pinelli, D. & Prarolo G. (2013). Cultural Diversity and Economic Performance: Evidence from European Regions. In Advances in Spatial Science, 76:121–41. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33395-8_7.

Bienen, H. S. (2012). The financial future of research universities. Social Research: An International Quarterly, 79(3), 631-634.

Bimper Jr, A.Y. (2017). Mentorship of Black student-athletes at a predominately White American university: critical race theory perspective on student-athlete development. Sport, Education, and Society, 22(2): 175-193. doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2015.1022524.

Blooms, Derrick R. & Davis, A.R. (2017). Staying Focused on the Goal: Peer Bonding and Faculty Mentors Supporting Black Males’ Persistence in College. Journal of Black Studies, 48(3):305-326. doi.org/10.1177/0021934717692520.

Boland, W.C., Samayoa, A.C., Gasman, M., Washington Locket, A., Jimenez, C., & Esmieu, P.L., (2017). National Campaign on the Return on Investment of Minority Serving Institutions. The Penn Center for Minority Serving Institutions. https://cmsi.gse.rutgers.edu/sites/default/files/ROI_Report.pdf.

Bound, J., Lovenheim M.F., & Turner S. (2010). Why Have College Completion Rates Declined? An Analysis of Changing Student Preparation and Collegiate Resources. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2(3): 129–57. https://doi.org/10.1257/app.2.3.129.

Bound, J., & Turner S. (2007). Cohort Crowding: How Resources Affect Collegiate Attainment. Journal of Public Economics, 91 (5–6): 877–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2006.07.006.

Bok, D., Shulman, J. & Bowen, W.G. (2019). The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions Twentieth Anniversary Edition. ISBN:9780691182483.

Braddock II, J., & Gonzalez, A. (2010). Social Isolation and Social Cohesion: The Effects of K–12 Neighborhood and School Segregation on Intergroup Orientations. Teachers College Record, 112(6): 1631–53. https://doi.org/10.1177/016146811011200606.

Campbell, T.A., & Campbell D.E. (2007). Outcomes of Mentoring At‐risk College Students: Gender and Ethnic Matching Effects. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 15(2): 135–48. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611260601086287.

Carrigan, C., Quinn, K., & Riskin E.A. (2011). The Gendered Division of Labor Among STEM Faculty and the Effects of Critical Mass. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 4(3): 131–46. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021831.

Casad, B.J., Franks, J.E., Garasky, C.E., Kittleman, M.M., Roesler A.C., Hall D.Y., & Petzel, Z.W. (2021). Gender Inequality in Academia: Problems and Solutions for Women Faculty in STEM. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 99(1): 13–23. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24631.

Cheslock, J.J., & Gianneschi M. (2008). Replacing State Appropriations with Alternative Revenue Sources: The Case of Voluntary Support. The Journal of Higher Education, 79(2): 208-229. Project MUSE, doi:10.1353/jhe.2008.0012.

Connor, K.A., Mack, P.L, Scott, C.J., Chouikha, M.F., Kelly, J.C., Velez-Reyes, M., Abraham, S., Bekolay, M., Nare, O.E., Eldak, A.A., & Ndoye M. (2021). A Super Department Model for Multi-University Collaboration. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference. https://peer.asee.org/a-super-department-model-for-multi-university-collaboration

Cook, L.D., & Yang Y. (2017). The Commercialization Gap in Pink and Black. Working Paper, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI.

Cook, L.D. (2020). Policies to broaden participation in the innovation process. The Hamilton Project, 2020-11.

Coupet, J. & Barnum D. (2010). HBCU efficiency and endowments: An exploratory analysis. International Journal of Educational Advancement, 10:186–197. https://doi.org/10.1057/ijea.2010.22.

Cox, T.H., & Blake S. (2011). Managing Cultural Diversity: Implications for Organizational Competitiveness. Executive, 5(3): 45–56. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.1991.4274465.

College Tuition Compare. (2021). Cost of Attendance Trends. https://www.collegetuitioncompare.com/trends/.

Conti-Brown, P. (2011). Scarcity amidst the wealth: the law, finance, and culture of elite university endowments in financial crisis. Stanford Law Review, 63(1): 699-750.

Cullers, J.B.S., Hughes, W.L & Llewellyn, D.C. (2017). Vertically Integrated Projects (VIP) Programs: Multidisciplinary Projects with Homes in Any Discipline. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference. https://scholarworks.boisestate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1311&context=mse_facpubs.

Cunningham, A., Park, E., & Engle, J. (2014). Minority-serving institutions: Doing more with less. Institute for Higher Education Policy Issue Brief. https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/bitstream/handle/10919/83120/MinorityServingInstitutions.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

Dixon, S. (2021). NCAA clears way for athlete compensation as state laws loom. The Associated Press. https://apnews.com/article/laws-sports-6fb10bea4176ac6a912138ce7f0a764e.

Frey, D. (2002). University endowment returns are underspent. Challenge. 45:4.

Fountain, J.J. & Finley P.S. (2011). Academic Clustering: A Longitudinal Analysis of a Division I Football Program. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics. 4:24-41.

Gasman, M. (2010). Comprehensive Funding Approaches for Historically Black Colleges and Universities. University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education and North Carolina Central University. https://repository.upenn.edu/gse_pubs/331.

Gilbert, D.A. (2016). Not (just) about the money: Contextualizing the labor activism of college football players. American Studies, 55(3): 19-34. https://journals.ku.edu/amsj/article/view/5911.

Grasko, J. (2021). Supreme court win for college athletes in compensation case. The Associated Press. https://apnews.com/article/ncaa-supreme-court-alston-college-athlete-benefits-5be12caeaf014da7d71baf0bb60646fe.

Heller, D.E. (2003). Aid matters: merit aid is the wrong tool to attract the best and the brightest. New England Board of Higher Education, 18(1): 25-25

Hemelt, S.W. & Marcotte, D.E. (2011). The Impact of Tuition Increases on Enrollment at Public Colleges and Universities. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(4): 435–457. doi:10.3102/0162373711415261.

Horta, H., Huisman J., & Heitor M. (2008). Does Competitive Research Funding Encourage Diversity in Higher Education? Science and Public Policy, 35 (3): 146–58. https://doi.org/10.3152/030234208X299044.

Horton Jr, D. (2015). Between a Ball and a Harsh Place: A Study of Black Male Community College Student-Athletes and Academic Progress. Community College Review, 43(3): 287-305. https://doi.org/10.1177/0091552115578168.

Jaquette, O., Curs, B.R., & Posselt J.R. (2016). Tuition Rich, Mission Poor: Nonresident Enrollment Growth and the Socioeconomic and Racial Composition of Public Research Universities. The Journal of Higher Education, 87(5):635-673, doi: 10.1080/00221546.2016.11777417.

Jaquette, O., & Curs, B.R. (2015). Creating the Out-of-State University: Do Public Universities Increase Nonresident Freshman Enrollment in Response to Declining State Appropriations? Research in Higher Education, 56: 535-565. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-015-9362-2.

John, G., & Stage F.K. (2014). Minority-Serving Institutions and the Education of U.S. Underrepresented Students. New Directions for Institutional Research. 158: 65-76. doi:10.1002/ir.20046.

Jones, L., Castellanos J., & Cole D. (2002). Examining the ethnic minority student experiences at predominately white institutions: a case study. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 1(1):19-39. https://doi.org/10.1177/1538192702001001003.

Karkouti, I.M. (2016). Black students' educational experiences in predominantly white universities: A review of the related literature. College Student Journal, 50(1): 59-70.

Kellogg Foundation. (2012). Cultures of Giving Energizing and Expanding Philanthropy by and for Communities of Color. https://www.d5coalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/CultureofGiving.pdf.

Komanduri S.M. & Roebuck J.B. (2015). Deviant Exploitation of Black Male Student Athletes on White Campuses. Deviant Behavior, 36(6): 429-440, doi:10.1080/01639625.2014.935691.

Kulics, J.M., Kornspan, A.S., & Kretovics M. (2015). An analysis of the academic behaviors and beliefs of Division I student-athletes: the impact of the increased percentage toward degree requirements. College Student Journal, 49(1): 1-12.

Lara, C. & Johnson, D. (2014). The anatomy of a likely donor: econometric evidence on philanthropy to higher education. Education Economics, 22(3): 293-304. https://doi.org/10.1080/09645292.2013.766672.

Lundy-Wagner, V., Vultaggio, J., & Gasman, M. (2013). Preparing underrepresented students of color for doctoral success: The role of undergraduate institutions. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 8:151-172. http://ijds.org/Volume8/IJDSv8p151-172Lundy-Wagner0381.pdf.

Marr, K.A., Mullin, C.H., & John J. Siegfried, J.J. (2005). Undergraduate financial aid and subsequent alumni giving behavior. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 45(1): 123-143. doi:10.1016/j.qref.2003.08.005.

Massey, D.S. (2004). Segregation and Stratification: A Biosocial Perspective. Du Bois Review, 1 (1): 7–25. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742058X04040032.

McCreary, K. (2021). Private College Tuition Discounting Continued Upward Trend During COVID-19 Pandemic. National Association of College and University Business Officers. https://www.nacubo.org/Press-Releases/2021/Private-College-Tuition-Discounting-Continued-Upward-Trend-During-COVID19-Pandemic.

McDearmon, J.T. & Shirley, K. (2009). Characteristics and institutional factors related to young alumni donors and non-donors. International Journal of Educational Advancement, 9(2): 83-95. https://doi.org/10.1057/ijea.2009.29.

McEvoy, C. (2006). The Impact of Elite Individual Performance on University Applicants for Admission in NCAA Division I-A Football. The Sport Journal. N.p., 19 Mar. 2015. https://thesportjournal.org/article/the-impact-of-elite-individual-athletic-performance-on-university-applicants-for-admission-in-ncaa-division-i-a-football-2/#:~:text=McEvoy%20found%20that%20an%20increase,increase%20in%20applicants%20to%20universities.

McLeod, P.L., Lobel, S.A., & Cox T.H., (1996). Ethnic Diversity and Creativity in Small Groups.” Small Group Research, 27 (2): 248–64. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496496272003.

Mealins, E. (2021). AU president announces policy changes regarding equity and inclusion. The Auburn Plainsman. https://www.theplainsman.com/article/2021/03/au-president-announces-policies-changes-regarding-equity-and-inclusion.

Milem, J.F. (2003). The educational benefits of diversity: Evidence from multiple sectors. Compelling interest: Examining the evidence on racial dynamics in higher education, pp.126–169.

National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). (2022). Historic Endowment Study Data. https://www.nacubo.org/Research/2021/Historic-Endowment-Study-Data.

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2021a). Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Spring 2020, Finance component. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d20/tables/dt20_333.90.asp.

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2021b). Public high school 4-year adjusted cohort graduation rate (ACGR), by race/ethnicity and selected demographic characteristics for the United States, the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: School year 2018–19. https://nces.ed.gov/ccd/tables/ACGR_RE_and_characteristics_2018-19.asp.

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2021c). College Navigator. https://nces.ed.gov/collegenavigator/.

National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES). (2021). Higher Education Research and Development (HERD) Survey, FY 2020. https://ncses.nsf.gov/pubs/nsf22311.

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). (2021a). NCAA Financial Database. Data visualization dashboard. https://www.ncaa.org/about/resources/research/finances-intercollegiate-athletics-database.

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). (2021b). NCAA Demographics Database. Data visualization dashboard. https://www.ncaa.org/about/resources/research/ncaa-demographics-database.

National Student Clearinghouse Research Center (NSCRC). (2021). Fall 2021 Enrollment (As of October 21). https://nscresearchcenter.org/stay-informed/.

National Science Foundation (NSF). (2019). Broadening Participation Brochure. https://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2019/nsf19090/nsf19090.pdf.

Nichols, A. & Santos, J. L. (2016). A glimpse inside the coffers: Endowment spending at wealthy colleges and universities. The Education Trust. https://edtrust.org/resource/a-glimpse-inside-the-coffersendowment-spending-at-wealthy-colleges-and-universities/.

Olbrecht, A.M., Romano, C., & Teigen, J. (2016). How Money Helps Keep Students in College: The Relationship between Family Finances, Merit-Based Aid, and Retention in Higher Education. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 46(2).

Orfield, G. (2001). Diversity challenged: Evidence on the impact of affirmative action. Harvard Education Publishing Group, Harvard Graduate School of Education, 8 Story St. Cambridge, MA 02138.

Ottaviano, G.I.P. & Peri, G. (2006). “The Economic Value of Cultural Diversity: Evidence from US Cities.” Journal of Economic Geography, 6(1): 9–44. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbi002.

Peterson, D.M., & Mann, C.L. (2020). Closing the Racial Inequality Gaps: The Economic Cost of Black Inequality in the U.S. Citi GPS: Global Perspective and Solutions. https://ir.citi.com/NvIUklHPilz14Hwd3oxqZBLMn1_XPqo5FrxsZD0x6hhil84ZxaxEuJUWmak51UHvYk75VKeHCMI%3D.

Pope, D.G., & Pope J.C. (2009). The Impact of College Sports Success on the Quantity and Quality of Student Applications. Southern Economic Journal, 75: 750–780.

Rankin, S., Merson D., Garvey, J.C., Sorgen, C.H., Menon, I., Loya, K., & Oseguera L. (2016). The Influence of Climate on the Academic and Athletic Success of Student-Athletes: Results from a Multi-Institutional National Study. The Journal of Higher Education, 87(5): 701-730. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2016.11777419.

Sacerdote, B. (2001). Peer Effects with Random Assignment: Results for Dartmouth Roommates. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(2): 681–704. https://doi.org/10.1162/00335530151144131.

Seifert, T.A., & Umbach, P.D. (2008). The Effects of Faculty Demographic Characteristics and Disciplinary Context on Dimensions of Job Satisfaction. Research in Higher Education, 49 (4): 357–81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-007-9084-1.

Simiyu, W.W. N. (2012). Challenges of being a Black student athlete on US college campuses. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 5: 40-63.

Selvidge, J. (2014). Pushing women and people of color out of science before we go in. Huffington Post Blog. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/pushing-women-and-people-_b_5840392.

Stahl, G.K., Maznevski, M.L., Voigt, A., & Jonsen, K. (2010). Unraveling the Effects of Cultural Diversity in Teams: A Meta-Analysis of Research on Multicultural Work Groups. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(4): 690–709. https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2009.85.

Startz, D. (2021). University finances and COVID-19: Different schools, different risks. Brown Center Chalkboard. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2020/06/18/university-finances-and-covid-19-different-schools-different-risks/.

State Higher Education Finance (SHEF). (2021). State Profile: Alabama”. https://shef.sheeo.org/state-profile/alabama/#:~:text=In%202020%2C%20two%2Dyear%20institutions,times%20of%20the%20U.S.%20average).

Stinebrickner, R., & Stinebrickner, T.R. (2006). What Can Be Learned about Peer Effects Using College Roommates? Evidence from New Survey Data and Students from Disadvantaged Backgrounds. Journal of Public Economics, 90(8–9): 1435–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2006.03.002.

Sun, X., Hoffman, S.C., & Grady, M.L. (2007). Multivariate Causal Model of Alumni Giving: Implications for Alumni Fundraisers. International Journal of Educational Advancement, 7:307–332. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.ijea.2150073.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). (2021). USDA Commitments to Equity in Agriculture Include Nearly $25 Million for Programs Reaching Underserved Communities. https://www.usda.gov/media/press-releases/2021/10/07/usda-commitments-equity-agriculture-include-nearly-25-million.

Waldeck, S.E. (2008). Coming showdown over university endowments: enlisting the donors.” Fordham Law Review, 77: 1795-1836.

Weerts, D.J. & Ronca, J.M. (2009). Using classification trees to predict alumni giving for higher education. Education Economics, 17(1): 95-122. https://doi.org/10.1080/09645290801976985.

Whitford, E. (2020). Public Higher Ed Funding Still Has Not Recovered from 2008 Recession. Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2020/05/05/public-higher-education-worse-spot-ever-heading-recession.

Whittaker, J.A., & Montgomery, B.L. (2012). Cultivating Diversity and Competency in STEM: Challenges and Remedies for Removing Virtual Barriers to Constructing Diverse Higher Education Communities of Success. Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education, 11(1): A44-A51.

Wolfe, B.L., & Fletcher J. (2013). NBER working paper series estimating benefits from university-level diversity. http://www.nber.org/papers/w18812.

Zimmerman, D.J. (2003). Peer Effects in Academic Outcomes: Evidence from a Natural Experiment. Review of Economics and Statistics, 85(1):9-23. https://doi.org/10.1162/003465303762687677.

Downloads

Published

2023-01-25

How to Cite

Chicas-Mosier, A., Fogelman, K., & Peretz, T. (2023). Can higher education transition to serve diversity, equity, justice, and inclusion missions without sacrificing fiscal standing?. Higher Education Politics and Economics, 9(1). Retrieved from https://ojed.org/index.php/hepe/article/view/5003