Encapsulating Holistic Intercultural Competence Development in Higher Education

A literature review on assessments and competencies


  • Constantina Rokos VU Amsterdam / FH Münster
  • Svetlana N. Khapova VU Amsterdam
  • Marcus Laumann FH Münster




Intercultural Competence, Assessment, Literature Review, Higher Education, Competencies


Intercultural competence (IC) has shown to be a critical asset for university graduates to appropriately and effectively perform in work- related settings that have become increasingly more diverse and intercultural. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand what constitutes effective IC development in higher education (HE). Within IC development, a more holistic understanding of IC assessment is needed. Thus, it is essential to comprehend how IC assessments work effectively, and their role in IC development. By reviewing empirical studies on IC development between 2000 and 2022, the particularities of IC assessments concerning administration, methods, and assessed competencies have been examined. Based on 31 papers, this literature review reveals the inconsistency of IC assessments in HE and proposes a holistic approach to IC assessments to bring more clarity to research and practice.


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Author Biographies

Constantina Rokos, VU Amsterdam / FH Münster

Constantina Rokos, is a PhD Candidate at the School of Business and Economics at Vrije Universiteit (VU) Amsterdam and a research fellow at the Münster School of Business at FH Münster. Her research interests include intercultural competence research and DEI practices in organizations. E-mail: constantina.rokos@fh-muenster.de

Svetlana N. Khapova, VU Amsterdam

Svetlana N. Khapova, PhD, is a professor of Organizational Behavior at the School of Business and Economics (SBE) of the Vrije Universiteit (VU) Amsterdam. Her research interests include career and organization studies. E-mail: s.n.khapova@vu.nl

Marcus Laumann, FH Münster

Marcus Laumann, PhD, is a professor of International Organization Management at Münster School of Business at FH Münster. His research interests include business process management and intercultural competence development in HE. E-mail: m.laumann@fh-muenster.de


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How to Cite

Rokos, C., Khapova, S. N. ., & Laumann, M. (2023). Encapsulating Holistic Intercultural Competence Development in Higher Education : A literature review on assessments and competencies. Journal of Comparative & International Higher Education, 15(5), 157–174. https://doi.org/10.32674/jcihe.v15i5(S).5348



Empirical Article