The Nature of Bullying in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Students’ Experiences in Ghana and Norway


  • Emmanuel Tay University of Agder
  • David Lansing Cameron Department of Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand. Norway



bullying, Ghana, higher education, negative behaviors, Norway


The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to identify the negative behaviors that constitute bullying in higher education as reported by students, and (b) to explore differences in student experiences in two markedly different national contexts. A sample of 1,189 respondents from two universities in Ghana (n = 751) and two universities in Norway (n = 438) answered the same questionnaire. Approximately 40% of the Ghanaian students and 20% of the Norwegian students responded that they had been bullied. Although less frequently observed than in Ghana, relational forms of bullying (e.g., being excluded) were more prevalent in Norway compared to other behaviors. In contrast, direct and verbal forms of bullying, such as name-calling and being taunted, were most common in Ghana. The findings provide insights into cultural and national variations with respect to negative social behaviors related to bullying in the context of higher education.


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Author Biography

David Lansing Cameron, Department of Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand. Norway

David Lansing Cameron is a professor of special education in the Department of Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway, where he researches and teaches in the fields of inclusive, comparative and special education. His most recent work concerns multidisciplinary collaboration, implementation of educational policy and exploration of social learning environments.


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How to Cite

Tay, E., & Cameron, D. L. . (2023). The Nature of Bullying in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Students’ Experiences in Ghana and Norway. Journal of Comparative & International Higher Education, 15(4), 17–46.



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