‘Edugration’ as a wicked problem: Higher education and three-step immigration





international students, immigration, edugration, wicked problems, education-migration, international student mobility


The recruitment and retention of post-secondary international students as ‘skilled’ immigrants has become a distinct form of immigration, shifting the role of higher education in society. This paper proposes the term edugration – an amalgamation of ‘education’ and ‘migration’ – to describe this system. It also argues that edugration presents an ethically ‘wicked problem’ (Rittel & Webber, 1973), requiring not only increased attention from higher/international education scholars, but also a shift in our analytic approach.


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Brunner, L. R. (2022). ‘Edugration’ as a wicked problem: Higher education and three-step immigration. Journal of Comparative & International Higher Education, 13(5S). https://doi.org/10.32674/jcihe.v13i5S.4061



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