Living without my foods: African Students Eating Habits Compared to All in the United States of America
Keywords:International students, Dietary acculturation, International migration, African, Eating Habits, Cultural Identity, Higher Education
The current project measures international students’ dietary acculturation challenges focusing on sub-Saharan Africans in the U.S.A. The analysis of 142 self-administered survey from participants between 18 and 48 are examined. Findings propose that students chose their foods when available. Newly arrived participants searched for known produce. Adaptation process starts after living for more than twenty-five months in the U.S. Sub-Saharan students increased their intake of standard American diet such as pre-made meals but reduced what they grew up eating. The surprise is that they shifted habits even when foods from their home countries are in groceries near them. Considering all, findings demonstrate that eating adjustment are related to length of stay, relationships, and food from their country of origin.
Alakaam A. Amir, D. C. Castellanos, J. B., & Harrison, L. (2015). The factors that influence dietary habits among international students in the United States. Journal of International Students, 5(2), 104–120.
Almohanna A., Conforti, F.; Eigel, W., & Barbeau, W. (2015). Impact of dietary acculturation on the food habits, weight, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels of international college students. Journal of American College Health, 63 (5), 307–314. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/vach20
Barer-Stein, T. (1979). You eat what you are, A study of ethnic food traditions. McClelland and Stewart.
Berry, J. W. (2003). Conceptual approaches to acculturation. In K. M. Chun, P. Balls Organista, & G. Marin (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 17-37). American Psychological Association. https://doi/org/10.1037/10472-004.
Bisogni, C., Connors, M., Devine, C. M., & Sobal, J. (2002). Who we are and how we eat: A qualitative study of identities in food choice. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 34, 128-139.
Brislin, R., & Yoshida, T. (1994). Intercultural communication training: An introduction. Sage Publications.
Brown, L., Edwards, J., & Hartwell, H. (2010). A taste of the unfamiliar. Understanding the meanings attached to food by international postgraduate students in England. Appetite, 54, 202-207.
Caballero, B., Trugo, L. C., & Finglas, L. M. (2003). Encyclopedia of food sciences and nutrition (2nd ed.) Elsevier Science.
Calandre, N., & E. Ribert. (2019). Sharing norms and adapting habits. The eating practices of immigrants and immigrants’ children from Malian and Moroccan origins in France. Social Science Information, 58(1), 141–192. https://doi.org/10.1177/0539018419843408
Cemalcilar, Z. & Falbo, T. (2008). A longitudinal study of the adaptation of international students in the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 799.
Church, A. T. (1982). Sojourner adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 540-72.
Cleveland, M., Laroche, M., Pons, F. & Kastoun, R. (2009). Acculturation and consumption: Textures of cultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33, 196-212.
Cortez, R. & Senauer, B. (1996). Taste changes in the demand for food by demographic groups in the United States: A nonparametric empirical analysis. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 72(2), 280-289.
de Garine, I. (1987). Food, culture and society. The Courier, 5, 4-7.
Flynn, K. C. (2005). Food, culture, and survival in an African city. Palgrave Macmillan.
Forka, L. M. F. (2009, September 15). Food as a linking device among the Guidar of North Cameroon. Ph.D. Dissertation, History Department, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon. https://doi.org/10.4000/aof.6353
Gabaccia, D. (1998). We are what we eat: Ethnic food and the making of Americans. Harvard University Press.
Gil, A., Vioquet, J., & Torija, E. (2005). Usual diet in Bubis, a rural immigrant population of African origin in Madrid. Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 18, 25-32.
Gilbert, P. A., & Khokar, S. (2008). Changing dietary habits of ethnic groups in Europe and implications for health. Nutrition Reviews, 6(4), 203–215.
Hayes, R. L., & Lin, H. R. (1994). Coming to America: Developing social support systems for international students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 22, 7-16.
Hechanova-Alampay, R., Beehr, T. A., Christiansen, N. D., & Van Horn, R. K. (2002). Adjustment and strain among domestic and international student sojourners: A longitudinal study. School Psychology International, 23(4), 458-474.
Institute of International Education. (2023). International student totals by place of origin, 2021/22. Open Doors Report on International Educational Exchange. http://www.iie.org/opendoors
Jastran, M. M., Bisogni, C. A., Sobal, J., Blake, C. & Devine, C. M. (2009). Eating routines. Embedded, value based, modifiable, and reflective. Appetite, 52, 127-136.
Kagan, H., & Cohen, J. (1990). Cultural adjustment of international students. Psychological Science, 1(2), 133- 137.
Kim, Y.-S. (2008). Communication experiences of American expatriates in South Korea: A study of cross-cultural adaptation. Human Communication, 11(4), 511-528.
Lăcătuşu, C.-M., E.-D., Grigorescu, M., Floria, A., Onofriescu, & B.-M., Mihai. (2019). The Mediterranean diet: from an environment-driven food culture to an emerging medical prescription. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(942), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.3390/
Landman, J., & Cruickshank, J. K. (2001). A review of ethnicity, health and nutrition-related diseases in relation to migration in the United Kingdom. Public Health nutrition, 4(2B), 647-657.
Leong, P. (2015). Coming to America: Assessing the patterns of acculturation, friendship formation, and the academic experiences of international students at a U.S. college. Journal of International Students, 5(4), 459–474.
Mennell, S., Murcott, A., & Van Otterloo, A. (1992). The impact on food of colonialism and migration. Current Sociology, 40, 75-80.
Monterrosa, E. C., E. A., Frongillo, A., Drewnowski, S. de Pee, & S., Vandevifere. (2020). Sociocultural influences on food choices and implications for sustainable healthy diets. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 41(2_suppl):59S-73S. doi:10.1177/0379572120975874
Mustafa, E. Ideris, M. S. K., & Zainol, N. A. (2020). To cook or not to cook: International students’ food choice strategy. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Environment Management, 5(18), 88-98.
Nestle, M., Wing, R., Birch, L., DiSogra, L., Drewnowski, A., Middleton, S., Sigman-Grant, M., Sobal, J., Winston, M., & Economos, C. (1998). Behavioral and social influences on food choice. Nutrition Reviews, 56.
Noyongoyo, B. (2011). International students in US colleges and universities: Eating habits of, cultural identity, and dietary acculturation. Master’s Thesis. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/3755
Papadaki, A., Hondros, G., Scott, J. A., & Kapsokefalou, M. (2007). Eating habits of university students living at, or away from home in Greece. Appetite, 49, 169-176.
Perez-Cueto, F., Verbeke, W., Lachat, C. & Remaut-De Winter, A. M. (2009). Changing in dietary habits following temporal migration. The case of international students in Belgium. Appetite, 52, 83–88.
Prieto-Welch, L. S. (2016). International students’ mental health. New Directions for Students Services, 156, 53-63.
Raj, S., Ganganna, P., & Bowering, J. (1999). Dietary habits of Asian Indians in relation to length of residence in the United States. Research and Professional Briefs, 99.
Rasmussen, S. (1996). Matters of taste: Food, eating, and reflections on "the body politic” in Tuareg Society. Journal of Anthropological Research, 52(1), 61-83. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3630236
Renzaho, A. M. N., & Burns, C. C. (2006). Post-migration food habits of sub-Saharan African migrants in Victoria: A cross-sectional study. Nutrition and Dietetics, 63, 91-102.
Ritzer, G. (2004). The McDonaldization of society. Sage Publications.
Ryan, M., & Twibell, R. S. (2000). Concerns, values, stress, coping, health and educational outcomes of college students who studied abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24, 409-435.
Sam, D. L., & Berry, J. W. (2010). Acculturation: When individuals and groups of different cultural backgrounds meet. Perspective on Psychological Science, 5(4), 472-481.
Sanou D., O’Reilley, E., Ngnie-Teta, I., Batal, M., Mondain, N., Coline, A., Newbold, B. K., Bourgeault, I. L. (2014). Acculturation and nutritional health of immigrants in Canada: A scoping review. Journal of Immigrant Minor Health, 16, 24–34.
Shepherd, R. (2002). Resistance to changes in diet. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 61, 267-272.
Singh, P., Williams, K., Jonnalagadda, G., & Reddy, R. R. S. (2022). International students: What’s missing and what matters. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 10, 381-397. doi: 10.4236/jss.2022.102027
Smith, M. L. (2006). The archaeology of food preference. American Anthropologist, 108(3), 480-493.
Sobal, J. (1998). Cultural comparison research designs in food, eating, and nutrition. Food Quality and Preference, 9(6), 385-392.
Sobal, J. (2005). Men, meat, and marriage: Models of masculinity.” Food and Foodways 13 (1), 135-158.
Su, H. (2003). Dietary acculturation of Chinese residents in Uppsala. Masters’ Thesis, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Uyen, P. T. X., & E. Chambers IV. (2020). Dietary acculturation and interest in modification of staple foods: A preliminary qualitative study with rice. Journal of Science and Technology, 44(2), 68-75. https://doi.org/10.46242/jst-iuh.v44i02.1035
Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock. Routledge.
Wu, H., Garza, E., & Guzman, N. (2015). International student’s challenge and adjustment to college. Education Research International, 2015, Article ID: 202753. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/202753
Yan, Z., & FitzPatrick, K. (2016). Acculturation and health behaviors among international students: A qualitative approach. Nursing and Health Sciences, 18, 58–63.
Ybema, S., Keenoy, T., Oswick, C., Beverungen, A., Ellis, N., & Sabelis, I. (2009). Articulating identities. Human Relations, 63, 299-322.
Zaharna, R. (1989). Self-shock: The double-binding challenge of identity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 13, 501-525.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Higher Education Politics and Economics
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Unless otherwise noted, copyrights for the texts which comprise all issues of Higher Education Politics & Economics (HEPE) are held by the Journal. The compilation as a whole is Copyright © by HEPE, all rights reserved. Items published by HEPE may be freely shared among individuals, but they may NOT be republished in any medium without express written consent from the author(s) and advance notification of the HEPE editorial board. For permission to reprint articles published in the Journal, please contact the Editor-in-Chief.