Spirituality and Religiosity Among International College Students in the United States: The Benefits and Predictors


  • Jung Woo Lih World Mission University, USA
  • Young K. Kim Azusa Pacific Unviersity, USA
  • Cameron A. Conn Baptist Health Sciences University, USA




Spirituality, Religiosity, College outcomes, College experiences, International students


This study examines how the spiritual and religious experiences of international students affect their college outcomes. Prior research has shown the significant influence of spirituality and religiosity on local students' college experiences. However, there is a notable gap in research regarding the spiritual and religious experiences of international students. Findings indicate both growth and decline in spiritual and religious qualities among international students during their college years. Moreover, certain spiritual and religious engagements are found to contribute significantly to cognitive, affective, and civic outcomes among this student population. Additionally, involvement in community service and peer interactions are identified as influential factors in the spiritual and religious development of international students.


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Author Biographies

Jung Woo Lih, World Mission University, USA

JUN WOO LIH, PhD, serves as an Assistant Professor of Education and directs the MA in Global Leadership program at World Mission University. His research focuses on student assessment within higher education. Email: jwlih@wmu.edu.

Young K. Kim, Azusa Pacific Unviersity, USA

YOUNG K. KIM, PhD, is a Professor of Higher Education at Azusa Pacific University. Her research interests include conditional college impact, college experience and outcomes among minoritized college students, and STEM in higher education. Email: ykkim@apu.edu.

Cameron A. Conn, Baptist Health Sciences University, USA

CAMERON A. CONN, PhD, serves as the Assistant Dean of Administration, Operations & Services at Baptist Health Sciences University. Her research focuses on examining the effects of college experiences on student outcomes, with attention given to exploring how the effects differ based on students’ intersectional identities. Email: Cameron.Conn@baptistu.edu.



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