Distance Education Satisfaction During COVID-19

Engineering Students' Opinion According to the Six Thinking Hats Technique


  • Ahmed Elmabaredy Suez University
  • Nurgun Gencel Ministry of National Education, Bartin, Turkey
  • Nuriye Semerci Bartin University, Department of Educational Sciences, Bartin, Turkey


Distance Education, Covid-19, Faculty of Engineering, Six Thinking Hats


This study aimed to investigate the distance education satisfaction during COVID-19 Pandemic from engineering students' opinion according to the six thinking hats technique. The study sample consists of 209 students from the faculties of engineering in Turkey. A qualitative analysis was performed using the Nvivo12 software upon taking opinions with a questionnaire administered in the online environment. Considering the prominent themes in the six hats, students feel incompetent for their future career; exams are not conducted fairly in distance education; yet students have had the opportunity to improve themselves during this period. Furthermore, while proposing suggestions on the improvement of distance education, students also drew negative conclusions regarding the distance education delivered during the pandemic. With this study, a multidimensional investigation of the distance education received by students from the faculty of engineering in a situation such as a pandemic has been carried out.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Ahmed Elmabaredy, Suez University

Nurgun Gencel, PhD, is a teacher in the ministry of National education, Bartin, Turkey. Her major research interests lie in the area of higher education research, educational technology, media and digital technologies.  Email: nurgungencel@gmail.com

Nurgun Gencel, Ministry of National Education, Bartin, Turkey

Ahmed Elmabaredy, PhD, is a lecturer in the faculty of education, department of educational technology, Suez University, Egypt.  He is major research interests lie in the area of mobile technologies in education, higher education research and educational technology.  Email: ahmed.elmabaredy@suezuniv.edu.eg

Nuriye Semerci, Bartin University, Department of Educational Sciences, Bartin, Turkey

Nuriye Semerci, PhD, is a senior lecturer in the department of educational sciences, Bartin University, Bartin, Turkey. Her major research interests lie in the area of higher education research, educational technology, media and digital technologies.  Email: nsemerci@bartin.edu.tr


Ahmed, A., Ahmed, E., Saeed, A., Alhumyani, H., Abdel-Khalek, S. & Abu-Zinadah H., (2021). Analysis and challenges of robust E-exams performance under COVID-19. Results in Physics, 23 (2021), 103987. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2021.103987

Aktay, Y. (2002). Global opportunities in education on equal opportunities in education and emancipation opportunities in a globalizing world. Educational Sciences in Theory and Practice, 2(1), 7-22. https://search.trdizin.gov.tr/yayin/detay/352598

Ali, W., (2020). Online and remote learning in higher education ınstitutes : A necessity in light of Covıd-19 Pandemic. Higher Education Studies. 10(3). https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v10n3p16

Alparslan, D. N. (2014). Mühendislik tarihi ve felsefesi üzerine bir araştırma . Marmara Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 0(1), 1-10. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/marusad/issue/391/2749

Aluyala, S., & Yamsani, N. (2014). Need of skill based training in computer science education. Recent Innovation Trends Computing Commun. 2 (5), 1249–1251.

Asgari, S., Trajkovic, J., Rahmani, M., Zhang, W., Lo, R. C., & Sciortino, A. (2021). An observational study of engineering online education during the COVID-19 pandemic. PLoS One, 16(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0250041

Baloran, E.T. (2020). Knowledge, attitudes, anxiety, and coping strategies of students during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2020.1769300

Caliskana, S., lSuzekb, S., & Ozcanb, D. (2018). Determining student satisfaction in distance education courses. Procedia Computer Science, 120, 529-538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2017.11.275

Camacho-Zuñiga, C., Pego, L., Escamilla, J., & Hosseini, S. (2021). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on students’ feelings at high school, undergraduate, and postgraduate levels. Heliyon, 7(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06465

Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry research, 287, 112934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934

Chien, C. (2021). A case study of the use of the six thinking hats to enhance the reflective practice of student teachers in Taiwan. Education, 49(5), 606-617, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2020.1754875

Comas-Forgas, R., Lancaster, T., Calvo-Sastre, A., & Sureda-Negre, J. (2021). Exam cheating and academic integrity breaches during the COVID-19 pandemic: An analysis of internet search activity in Spain. Heliyon, 7(10). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08233

Daniel, S. J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49(1), 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3

De Bono, E. (1997). Six Thinking Hats. Little Brown and Company.

De Paepe, L., Zhu, C., & DePryck, K. (2018). Drop-out, retention, satisfaction and attainment of online learners of Dutch in adult education. International Journal on E-Learning, 17(3), 303-323. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/174173

Deneui, D., & Dodge, T. (2006). Asynchronous learning networks and student outcomes: the utility of online learning components in hybrid courses. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 33(4), 256-259. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ754186

Ekahitanond, V. (2018). Adopting the six thinking hats to develop critical thinking abilities through LINE. Australian Educational Computing, 33(1). http://journal.acce.edu.au/index.php/AEC/article/view/120

Elsalem, L., Al-Azzam, N., Jum'ah, A., & Obeidat, N. (2021). Remote e-exams during Covid-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study of students’ preferences and academic dishonesty in faculties of medical sciences. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 62, 326-333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2021.01.054

Gregory, S., & Masters, Y. (2012). Real thinking with virtual hats: A role-playing activity for pre-service teachers in Second Life. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(3). https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.843

Grodotzki, J., Upadhya, S., & Tekkaya, A. (2021). Engineering education amid a global pandemic. Advances in Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, 3, 100058. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aime.2021.100058

Guessoum, S. B., Lachal, J., Radjack, R., Carretier, E., Minassian, S., Benoit, L., & Moro, M. R. (2020). Adolescent psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. Psychiatry Research, 113264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. psychres.2020.113264

Gürer, M. D., Tekinarslan, E., & Yavuzalp, N. (2016). Opinions of online lecturers about distance education. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 7(1), 47-78. http://acikerisim.ibu.edu.tr/xmlui/handle/20.500.12491/3165

Haldun, A., Yalçın, M. A., Bayrak, M., Sazak, N., & Yıldız, M. (2006). Geleceğin Mühendislik Eğitimi ve Mühendis Meslek Odalarının Sorumlulukları, Elektrik Elektronik Bilgisayar Mühendislikleri 3. Ulusal Sempozyumu EEB’06, İstanbul. https://www.emo.org.tr/ekler/d8c6ee0d8964e66_ek.pdf

Jamalpur B., Kafila, Chythanya K.R. & Kumar K.S. (2021). A comprehensive overview of online education – Impact on engineering students during COVID-19. Materials Today: Proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.01.749

Kaden, U. (2020). COVID-19 school closure-related changes to the professional life of a K–12 teacher. Education Sciences, 10(6), 165. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10060165

Karadag, E., Su, A. & Ergin-Kocaturk, H. (2021). Multi-level analyses of distance education capacity, faculty members’ adaptation, and indicators of student satisfaction in higher education during COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Educ Technol High Educ 18, 57. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-021-00291-w

Karadag, M., Saritas, S., & Erginer, E. (2009). Using the'Six thinking hats' model of learning in a surgical nursing class: sharing the experience and student opinions. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, The, 26(3), 59-69.

Karakaş, M. & Çalık, A. (2014). Mühendislik eğitiminde disiplinlerarası yaklaşımlar. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi , 17 (1) , 45-49 . https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/sdufenbed/issue/20800/222070

Kasapoğlu, K. E. (1998). Mühendislik eğitiminde kalite sorunu ve çözümü: Profesyonel Mühendislik. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 21 (1) , 1-4 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jmd/issue/52400/686402

Khan, Z. H., & Abid, M. I. (2021). Distance learning in engineering education: Challenges and opportunities during COVID-19 pandemic crisis in Pakistan. The International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Education. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020720920988493

Liu, N., Zhang, F., Wei, C., Jia, Y., Shang, Z., Sun, L., … Liu, W. (2020). Prevalence and predictors of PTSS during COVID-19 outbreak in China hardest-hit areas: Gender differences matter. Psychiatry Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112921

Masalimova, A. R., Khvatova, M. A., Chikileva, L. S., Zvyagintseva, E. P., Stepanova, V. V., & Melnik, M. V. (2022). Distance learning in Higher Education during Covid-19. Frontiers. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2022.822958

McKinsey Global Institute (2021). The future of work after COVID-19. https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/future-of-work/the-future-of-work-after-covid-19

Mills, J. E., & Treagust, D. F. (2003). Engineering education—Is problem-based or project-based learning the answer. Australasian journal of engineering education, 3(2), 2-16.

Murgatrotd, S. (2020). COVID 19 and online learning. Strategic Foresight for Educational Leaders. http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.31132.85120

Özçep, F., Karabulut, S., Alpaslan, N., Makaroğlu, Ö., Özçep, T., & Çağlak, F. (2003). Mühendislik felsefesi ve tarihsel gelişimi. Mühendislik Bilimleri Genç Araştırmacılar I. Kongresi, Bildiriler Kitabı, 649-657.

Özsoy, A. (2014). View of engineers working in engineering education and the workplace education model. Suleyman Demirel University, Journal of Natural and Applied Science, 17 (1) , 77-85 . https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/sdufenbed/issue/20800/222076

Pan, Y., Yang, Z., Han, X. & Shisan, Q. (2021). Family functioning and mental health among secondary vocational students during the COVID-19 epidemic: A moderated mediation model. Personality and Individual Differences, 171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110490

Rahimi, S., & Vallerand, R. J. (2021). The role of passion and emotions in academic procrastination during a pandemic (COVID-19). Personality and Individual Differences, 179, 110852. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.110852

Ripoll, V., Godino-Ojer, M., & Calzada, J. (2021). Teaching chemical engineering to biotechnology students in the time of COVID-19: Assessment of the adaptation to digitalization. Education for Chemical Engineers, 34, 94-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ece.2020.11.005

Scholes, C. A. (2021). Chemical engineering design project undertaken through remote learning. Education for Chemical Engineers, 36, 65-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ece.2021.03.003

Sözen, N., (2020). COVID-19 Sürecinde Uzaktan Eğitim Uygulamaları Üzerine Bir İnceleme. Eurasian Journal of Researches in Social and Economics. 7(12), 302-319. https://doi.org/10.19171/uefad.845915

Stephenson, J., & Sangrà, A., (2013). Fundamentals of technical-pedagogical design in e-learning. Open University of Catalunya, Barcelona.

Şeren, N., Tut, E. & Kesten, A. (2020). Korona virüs sürecinde uzaktan eğitim: Temel eğitim bölümü öğretim elemanlarının görüşleri. Turkish Studies - Education, 15(6), 4507-4524. http://dx.doi.org/10.47423/TurkishStudies.46472

Tamura, Y., & Furukawa, S. (2007). CSCL Environment for “Six Thinking Hats” Discussion. In: B. Apolloni, J. Howlett, & L. Jain (eds.) Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4694. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74829-8_72

Torales, J., O’Higgins, M., Castaldelli-Maia, J., & Ventriglio, A. (2020). The outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health. Int J Soc Psychiatry, 66(4), 317-320. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020915212

Torras, E. (2015). Aproximación conceptual a la ense˜nanza y aprendizaje en línea.Universital Oberta de Cataluya, Barcelona.

UNESCO, (2022). Impact of COVID-19 on Education. https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse

Vasupongayya, S., Kamolphiwong, T., Kamolphiwong, S., & SaeWong, S. (2010). Interactive examination management system. 2nd International Conference on Education Technology and Computer, IEEE, Shanghai, China, Jun. 22-24. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICETC.2010.5529435

Wang, C., Cheng, Z., Yue, X.-G., & McAleer, M. (2020). Risk management of COVID-19 by universities in China. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 13(2), 36. http://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13020036

Waterhouse, P., Samra, R., & Lucassen, M. (2022). Distance education students’ satisfaction: Do work and family roles matter?. Distance Education, 56-77. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2021.2020622

World Health Organization. (2022). WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. https://covid19.who.int

Yang, D., Swekwi, U., Tu, C.-C. & Dai, X. (2020). Psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on Wuhan’s high school students. Children and Youth Services Review. 119. 105634. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105634

Yekefallaha, L., Namdarb, P., Panahic, R., & Dehghankard, L. (2021). Factors related to students' satisfaction with holding e-learning during the Covid-19 pandemic based on the dimensions of e-learning. Heliyon, 7(7). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07628

Yolcu, H. (2020). Distance education experiences of classroom teacher candidates during the coronavirus (covid-19) pandemic process. Journal of Open Education Practices and Research, 6 (4), 237-250. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/auad/issue/57638/788890

Zhai, Y., Du, X. (2020). Addressing collegiate mental health amid COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatr Research, 288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113003

Zhang, F., Shang, Z., Ma, H., Jia, Y., Sun, L., Guo, X., … Liu, W. (2020). High risk of infection caused posttraumatic stress symptoms in individuals with poor sleep quality: A study on influence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China. MedRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.22.20034504

Additional Files



How to Cite

Elmabaredy, A., Gencel, N. ., & Semerci, N. . (2023). Distance Education Satisfaction During COVID-19 : Engineering Students’ Opinion According to the Six Thinking Hats Technique. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Education, 12(2), 220–242. Retrieved from https://ojed.org/index.php/jise/article/view/5500