International Students by Treaty
Common Space, Different Vulnerabilities
Keywords:Caribbean, COVID-19, developing nations, higher education, international students, Looming Vulnerability, natural disaster, perception
Nonnational students in the Anglophone Caribbean are often affected by natural or man-made disasters that affect their experiences in the host country. However, the region had never experienced pandemic disasters such as COVID-19. Its occurrence highlighted latent concerns such as prejudices, border issues, and weak institutional support despite the existence of geopolitical treaties. Using the concept of the looming vulnerability framework, and incorporating a transformative lens, the research examined factors that contributed to these students’ vulnerabilities at institutions of higher education in the Caribbean during the pandemic. A qualitative research design using regional newspapers accounted for students’ collective voices. The results showed that nonnational students’ mental well-being was affected by factors including institutional role, management of communication, access to resources, their governments’ expression of financial support, and perceived discrimination from the host community. The article highlights the potential for students’ further marginalization in the absence of pragmatic disaster preparedness plans.
Bailey, T. (2020, April 27). Slamming shortages, med students in Cuba plead to come home. The Gleaner. http://jamaica-gleaner.com/article/news/20200427/slamming-shortages-med-students-cuba-plead-come-home
Baksh, V. (2020, May 1). Caring for students. Trinidad Express. https://trinidadexpress.com/opinion/columnists/caring-for-students/article_d3a8872e-8c05-11ea-84df-534bb77b3b56.html
Barranco, J., & Wisler, D. (1999). Validity and systematicity of newspaper data in event analysis. European Sociological Review, 15(3), 301-322. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.esr.a018265
Bowen, G. A. (2009). Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9(2), 27-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3316/QRJ0902027
Buetow, S. (2010). Thematic analysis and its reconceptualization as ‘saliency analysis’. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 15(2), 123-125. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1258/jhsrp.2009.009081
Capobianco, L., Morris, J. A., & Wells, A. (2018). Worry and rumination: do they prolong physiological and affective recovery from stress? Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 31(3), 291-303.https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2018.1438723 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2018.1438723
Caribbean Community. (2002). Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas establishing the Caribbean Community including the CARICOM Single Market & Economy. CARICOM Secretariat.
Castiello-Gutiérrez , S., & Li, X. (2020). We are more than your paycheck. Journal of International Students, 10(3), i-iv. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v10i3.2676 DOI: https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v10i3.2676
Chien, Y. Y. G. (2015). International postgraduate students in Britain: Reasons for studying abroad and issues related to adjustment. International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education, 2(1), 737-748. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20533/ijtie.2047.0533.2015.0095
Clarke, V., & Braun, V. (2017). Thematic analysis. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(3), 297-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2016.1262613 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2016.1262613
Covid-19: Guyanese doctors, students seeking evacuation from Cuba, say conditions deteriorating. (2020, April 20). Stabroek News. https://www.stabroeknews.com/2020/04/20/news/guyana/covid-19-guyanese-doctors-students-seeking-evacuation-from-cuba-say-conditions-deteriorating/
Creswell, J.W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Sage.
Cubillo, J.M., Sanchez, J., & Cervino, J. (2006). International Students Decision-Making Process. International Journal of Educational Management, 20(2), 101-115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09513540610646091
Downs, A. (1972). Up and down with ecology-the “issue-attention cycle”. Public Interest, 28(Summer), 38-50.
Dunkley-Willis, A. (2020, April 9). UWI seeks help. Jamaica Observer. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/uwi-seeks-principal-outlines-measures-being-taken-amid-covid-19_191571?profile=1470
Earl, J., Martin, A., McCarthy, J. D., & Soule, S. A. (2004). The use of newspaper data in the study of collective action. Annu. Rev. Sociol., 30, 65-80. https://doi.org/ 10.1146/annurev.soc.30.012703.110603 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.30.012703.110603
Echols, M. A. (1995). Regional economic integration and higher education: An idea for a university. Law & Pol'y Int'l Bus., 27, 903.
Edwards-Joseph, A., & Baker, S. (2014). Factors Caribbean overseas students perceive influence their academic self-efficacy. Journal of International Students, 4(1), 48-59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v4i1.496
Farias, L., Rudman, D.L., Magalhães, L., & Gastaldo, D. (2017). Reclaiming the potential of transformative scholarship to enable social justice. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406917714161 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406917714161
Forbes-Mewett, H. (2020). Vulnerability and resilience in a mobile world. Journal of International Students, 10(3), ix-xi. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v10i3.2002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v10i3.2002
Fraser, N. (2020, May 24). TT students at UWI Mona ‘stressed and confused’ as they cannot access grants. Newsday. https://newsday.co.tt/2020/05/24/tt-students-at-uwi-mona-stressed-and-confused-as-they-cannot-access-grants/
Füssel, H. (2006). Vulnerability: A generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research. Global Environmental Change, 17(2007), 155-167. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.05.002
Gilbert, P. (2016). Human nature and suffering. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315564258
Gioanetti, A. (2020, July 3). TT students in Grenada: We need to come home too. Newsday. https://newsday.co.tt/2020/07/03/tt-students-in-grenada-we-need-to-come-home-too/
Guadagno, L., Fuhrer, M., & Twigg, J. (2017). Introduction: A case for migrant-inclusive disaster risk reduction. In L. Guadagno, M. Fuhrer, & J. Twigg (Eds.), Migrants in disaster risk reduction: Practices for inclusion (pp. 9-12). IOM and France, Council of Europe.
Hinds, D. (January 01, 2006). Domestic non-cooperation and regional integration: Problems of Caribbean regionalism. Social and Economic Studies, 3, 32-48.
Hunte, C. (2020, June 27). T&T students beg to come home. Trinidad Express. https://trinidadexpress.com/news/local/t-t-students-beg-to-come-home/article_37214b3e-b815-11ea-88cd-7fc838767649.html
Hunter-Johnson, Y., & Niu, Y. (2019). Bahamians as international adult learners determined for academic success. Journal of International Students, 9(4), 1038-1054. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v9i4.606
Izumi, T., Sukhwani, V., Surjan, A., & Shaw, R. (2020). Managing and responding to pandemics in higher educational institutions: Initial learning from COVID-19. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJDRBE-06-2020-0054 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJDRBE-06-2020-0054
Kapucu, N., & Khosa, S. (2012). Disaster resiliency and culture of preparedness for university and college campuses. Administration & Society, 45(1), 3-37. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399712471626 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399712471626
Lam, J. M., Tong, D. Y. K., & Ariffin, A. A. M. (2017). Exploring perceived risk and risk reduction strategies in the pursuit of higher education abroad: A case of international students in Malaysia. Journal of Studies in International Education, 21(2), 83-104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315316662980
Littlefield, R.S., & Quenette, A.M. (2007). Crisis leadership and Hurricane Katrina: The portrayal of authority by the media in natural disasters. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 35(1), 26-47. https://doi.org/10.1080/00909880601065664 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00909880601065664
Marginson, S. (2012). Including the other: Regulation of the human rights of mobile students in a nation-bound world. Higher Education, 63, 497-512. https://doi: 10.1007/s10734-011-9454-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-011-9454-7
Mouzon, D.M., & McLean, J.S. (2017). Internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans, US-born Caribbean Blacks, and foreign-born Caribbean Blacks. Ethnicity & Health, 22(1), 36-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13447858.2016.1196652 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2016.1196652
Partridge, H. (2007). Establishing the human perspective of the information society [Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology].
Pennycook, G., McPhetres, J., Zhang, Y., Lu, J. G., & Rand, D. G. (2020). Fighting COVID-19 misinformation on social media: Experimental evidence for a scalable accuracy-nudge intervention. Psychological science, 31(7), 770-780. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797620939054 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797620939054
Perchinig, B. (2016). Migrants in countries in crisis initiative: Supporting an evidence-based approach for effective and cooperative state action (Research Brief). International Centre for Migration Policy Development.
Peroni, L., & Timmer, A. (2013). Vulnerable groups: The promise of an emerging concept in European human rights convention law. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 11(4), 1056-1085. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/icon/mot042
Pezzulo, G. (2014). Why do you fear the bogeyman? An embodied predictive coding model of perceptual inference. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 14(3), 902-911. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-013-0227-x
Rahming, S. (2019). Social support and stress-related acculturative experiences of an English-speaking Afro-Caribbean female student in U.S. higher education. Journal of International Students, 9(4), 1055-1073. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v9i4.343
Randall, F. (2020, July 17). COVID-19 leads to freeze of tuition and some hall fees at UWI Mona. Jamaica Observer. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/covid-19-leads-to-freeze-of-tuition-and-some-hall-fees-at-uwi-mona_198662?profile=1373
Riskind, J.H., & Rector, N.A. (2018). Looming vulnerability: Theory, research and practice in anxiety. Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8782-5
Saldaña, J. (2015). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Sage.
Salmon, D. (2020, May 17). UWI Caribbean students feel trapped, abandoned in Ja. The Sunday Gleaner. http://jamaica-gleaner.com/article/news/20200517/uwi-caribbean-students-feel-trapped-abandoned-ja
Serafini, G., Parmigiani, B., Amerio, A., Aguglia, A., Sher, L., & Amore, M. (2020). The psychological impact of COVID-19 on the mental health in the general population. Qjm: An International Journal of Medicine, 11(8), 531-537. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa201
Sherry, M., Thomas, P., & Chui, W. (2009). International students: A vulnerable student population. High Education, 60, 33-46. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-009-9284-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-009-9284-z
Strenger, C. (2012). Existential foundations of looming vulnerability: Thoughts about John Riskind's work with anxiety. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 22(2), 163-165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028012
Sullivan, C., & Kashubeck-West, S. (2015). The interplay of international students’ acculturative stress, social support, and acculturation modes. Journal of International Students, 5(1), 1-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v5i1.438
Sunstein, C. R. (2003). Terrorism and probability neglect. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 26(2-3), 121-136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024111006336
Tanacković, S.F., Krtalić, M., & Lacović, D. (2014). Newspapers as a research source: Information needs and information seeking of humanities scholars. IFLA Lyons.
Thorup-Binger, C., & Charania, N.A. (2019). Vulnerability and capacities of international students in the face of disasters in Auckland, New Zealand: A qualitative descriptive study. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 39 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101136 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101136
Tierney, K., Bevc, C., & Kuligowski, E. (2006). Metaphors matter: Disaster myths, media frames, and their consequences in Hurricane Katrina. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716205285589 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716205285589
Tran, L. T. (2020). Teaching and engaging international students. Journal of International Students, 10(3), xii-xvii. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v10i3.2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v10i3.2005
UWI students return after Ivan passes Jamaica. (2004, September 17). Searchlight. http://testwp09.newsmemory.com/searchlight/news/news/2004/09/17/uwi-students-return-after-ivan-passes-jamaica/
Walters, J. L. (2018). International education is political! Exploring the politics of international student mobilities. Journal of International Students, 3(3), 1459-1478. http://jistudents.org/doi:10.5281/zenodo.1254611 DOI: https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v8i3.66
Webb, Y. (2020, May 13). Grateful Cave Hill students: 'We're being treated as top priority'. Newsday. https://newsday.co.tt/2020/05/13/grateful-cave-hill-students-were-being-treated-as-top-priority/
Weger, M., & Sandi, C. (2018). High anxiety trait: A vulnerable phenotype for stress-induced depression. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 87, 27-37. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.01.012
Wilson-Harris, N. (2020, May 28). Boycott threat on 138 Student living over storage fees. The Gleaner. http://jamaica-gleaner.com/article/lead-stories/20200528/boycott-threat-138-student-living-over-storage-fees
Wisner, B. (2016). Vulnerability as concept, model, metric, and tool. https://doi.org/ 10.1093/acrefore/9780199389407.013.25 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199389407.013.25
Yeo, G. C., Hong, R. Y., & Riskind, J. H. (2020). Looming cognitive style and its associations with anxiety and depression: A meta-analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 44(3), 445-467. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-020-10089-1
Zlomke, K. R., & Jeter, K. M. (2014). Stress and worry: Examining intolerance of uncertainty's moderating effect. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 27(2), 202-215. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2013.835400 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2013.835400
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of International Students
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
All published articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported License.