What does it take to find a job today

International doctoral student perspectives on domestic and international employment


  • Xin Zhao
  • Michael Kung


Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) across the world have become increasingly international. Recently, increasing attention has been drawn towards graduate employability in Higher Education Institutions worldwide. The National Student Survey and Teaching Excellence Framework in the UK have brought graduate employability to the forefront of discussions. Much research has been devoted to enhancing undergraduate students’ employability skills and attributes through curriculum design and work-based learning; however, little attention has been paid to the employability of international students, particularly, doctoral students. This chapter aims to explore the perspectives of Chinese international doctoral students on their PhD experience and employability and to identify commonly used resources for career planning. Results show that students consider there is a significant difference between Chinese and Western employers when it comes to recruiting graduate students. 


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Author Biographies

Xin Zhao

Dr. Xin Zhao is a Senior Fellow of Higher Education Academy, currently working as a University Teacher at the Information School of the University of Sheffield. Her research interests include Internationalization of Higher Education, Digital Pedagogy, Cross-Cultural studies. She is an invited lecturer at Linnaeus University Summer Academy (Sweden) and has worked as an educational consultant between 2009 and 2015, advising academic institutions, educational organisations, and international corporations on the policies and practices regarding internationalisation. Email: xin.zhao@sheffield.ac.uk

Michael Kung

Dr. Michael Kung is Director of Global Education and the Program Director for the Sustainable Design Master’s program at the College of Design, Construction and Planning at the University of Florida. He earned his doctorate from the University of Florida and joined the College in 2010. Much of his research and international experience comes from regularly traveling to countries in Asia, such as China, Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, and Singapore. He regularly assists international students and visiting scholars at his college and arranges personalized orientations and training sessions at his college and the university as a whole. His research interests include international education and culture and educational technology, as well as sustainability and historic preservation. He has published and presented in North America and Asia and also serves as a guest reviewer for international journals. He currently teaches research methodology for the Sustainable Design program and educational technology courses for the College of Education, UF as an adjunct lecturer. Email: mkung@ufl.edu



How to Cite

Zhao, X., & Kung, M. (2021). What does it take to find a job today: International doctoral student perspectives on domestic and international employment. Book Series. Retrieved from https://ojed.org/index.php/gsm/article/view/1876



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