Journal of International Students <p>The&nbsp;<em>Journal of International Students </em>(JIS) is a quarterly&nbsp;publication on international education. JIS&nbsp;is an academic, interdisciplinary, and peer-reviewed publication (Print ISSN 2162-3104&nbsp;&amp; Online ISSN 2166-3750) on international student affairs.&nbsp;The journal<em>&nbsp;</em>publishes narrative, theoretical, and empirically-based research articles, student and faculty reflections, study abroad experiences, and book reviews relevant to international students and their cross-cultural experiences and understanding in international education.&nbsp;</p> STAR SCHOLARS NETWORK en-US Journal of International Students 2162-3104 <p>All published articles are licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported License</a>.</p> International Students in the Era of Trump and Brexit: Implications, Constructions and Trends <p>Across the Global North, many commentators have begun to note the expansion and spread of nationalist sentiments with some concern. Outside of the US, in the immediate aftermath of the U.K. vote to leave the European Union (EU) in the June 2016 referendum, there was an alarming increase in reported incidents of hate crime targeted at non-U.K. nationals (Burnett, 2017). These varied from physical attacks on individuals to verbal abuse and cyber assaults. Commentators suggested that the vote to leave had somehow—and for some people—legitimized the open display of negative attitudes toward foreigners and cultural difference, casual xenophobia, and indeed racist behavior (Khalili, 2016).</p> Brendan Bartram ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1479–1482 1479–1482 10.32674/jis.v8i4.210 International Graduate Student Labor as Mergers and Acquisitions <p>This study critically examines the self-reported experiences of international graduate students using a framework understanding internationalization as acquisitions and mergers. Students reported positive experiences with their advisors. However, students’ accounts of laboratories and other research settings were diverse, ranging from co-contributors to knowledge and respected collaborators to employed cheap labor that their advisors depended upon for their own gains. In some cases, these students feared that their funding would be cut off or dismissed from the program (and consequently deported from the US) if they challenged their advisors. Whether such apprehensions were valid is unknown as this study focused on perceptions of the students only. The findings do lead to important future directions for research and practice.</p> Brendan Cantwell Jenny J. Lee Yeukai A. Mlambo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1483–1498 1483–1498 10.32674/jis.v8i4.211 An Academic and Cultural Transition Course for International Students: Efficacy and SocioEmotional Outcomes <p>The current study details changes in first-year international undergraduate students’ perceived knowledge of, confidence in, and usefulness of intercultural skills in specific US university contexts after completing a semester-long academic and cultural transition course at a mid-sized private university. Results revealed significant increases in participants’ (n= 42) perceived intercultural competence, perspective shifting, suspending judgment, self-advocacy, and interacting in class with students of other cultures; participants also reported significantly higher campus belonging and social support than a comparison group of students at the university who were not enrolled in the course (n = 32). These findings provide initial evidence for the potential of transition courses to increase intercultural skills and campus belonging for first-year undergraduate international students attending US universities.</p> Nelson C. Brunsting Andrew C. Smith Corinne E. Zachry ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1497–1521 1497–1521 10.32674/jis.v8i4.213 Stress-Driven Spending: Correlates of International Students’ Adjustment Strains and Compulsive Online Buying <p>We investigated international students’ stress-driven spending behavior by focusing on the psychological and behavioral consequences of the strains they experience during the adjustment process in the U.S. We found that certain adjustment strains significantly lowered international students’ self esteem, which further affected their happiness and engagement in compulsive online buying. This study highlights the importance of understanding underlying drivers and consequences of international students’ adjustment strains to facilitate better adaptation to a foreign culture and to prevent negative consumption tendencies.</p> Yana Lou Sang-Eun Byun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1522–1548 1522–1548 10.32674/jis.v8i4.214 The Outcomes of the Community Cooking Workshops for International Students at Simon Fraser University <p>The Community Cooking Workshops (CCWs) are free, bi-weekly, hands-on, cooking and nutrition education workshops for international students facilitated by the Simon Fraser University (SFU) Peer Health Educators (PHEs). The impacts of the CCWs on international student nutrition knowledge, behavior change, and social outcomes were examined. Data was collected and coded from five Spring 2016 CCWs through workshop&nbsp;evaluation forms (n=87, 93% response rate) and nine semi-structured interviews with international student participants. Participants reported changes in eating behavior and knowledge (all food should be consumed in moderation, with variety) and improved sense of community. Future research should assess the long-term impacts of cooking workshops in postsecondary institutions on diet quality, cooking skills, social connectedness, and international student wellbeing</p> Gabriella Luongo Rochelle Tucker Crystal Hutchinson Rosie Dhaliwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1549–1568 1549–1568 10.32674/jis.v8i4.218 The Institutional Determinants of Internationalization: The Cases of Study Abroad Participation and International Student Enrollment <p>Globalization, global citizenship, and cross-cultural competence are central to the mission of post-secondary institutions. In this paper, we examined study abroad participation rates and international student enrollments to understand the determinants that drive critical components of campus internationalization. We identified possible explanatory variables for study abroad participation and international student enrollment, conducting regression analyses to assess the relationships between variables. We found that several explanatory variables were significantly related to study abroad participation and international student enrollment. Models showed differences in how variables could be used to predict study abroad participation and international enrollment at different kinds of schools.</p> Jonathan Marks Charles Yeager, Jr. Jay Gatrell Jeremy Bennett ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1591–1612 1591–1612 10.32674/jis.v8i4.220 Motehen: A Case Study of Shifting Perceptions of Japanese Masculinity and Desirability Through Study Abroad <p>Topics of gender, sexuality and desirability have become prominent themes in study abroad research, particularly when exploring the experiences of Japanese women overseas. However, little research has explored the gendered experiences of Japanese male international students. This paper presents the case study of Ki, a young Japanese man who studied abroad in the United States. During his sojourn, Ki experienced a significant shift in his perceptions of masculinity and desirability through clashes with essentialized Western romantic practices and gender norms. This article critically examines discriminatory discourses of Japanese heterosexual masculinity and argues that colliding with these discourses negatively altered Ki’s view of himself as a desirable romantic partner both during his sojourn and upon his return to Japan.</p> Elisabeth (Libby) Morinaga-Williams ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1569–1590 1569–1590 10.32674/jis.v8i4.219 “They Make No Contribution!” versus “We Should Make Friends with Them!”—American Domestic Students’ Perception of Chinese International Students’ Reticence and Face <p>This project examined both quantitative and qualitative data about how American domestic undergraduates perceived Chinese international students’ (CISs) reticence and face concerns. A quasi-experimental design about American students’ ratings of a fictional CIS described in scenarios demonstrated that the reticent CIS was rated as more typical, less likable, and less socially-approved. A thematic analysis of American students’ impression about CISs suggested: 1) some Americans stigmatized CISs due to their poor English and reticence in classroom; 2) others were more open-minded to approach CISs’ reticence with intercultural communication competence by taking CISs’ perspective. The findings indicated: the stereotype that typical CISs are reticent leads to Americans’ negative evaluations of CISs; while perspective-taking skills resulted in better intercultural-communication experience.</p> Yi Zhu Mary Bresnahan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1614–1635 1614–1635 10.32674/jis.v8i4.221 Relationships Between Stress and Psychosocial Factors with Sources of Help-Seeking Among International Students <p>This study explored the prevalence of stressors and their impact on distress for international students who did not seek help, those who sought either informal or professional help, and those who accessed both informal and professional help. Results indicated that international students underutilize professional support services when faced with serious stressors, such as assaults, and often do not seek help from any source for those stressors contributing most to their overall distress. Those endorsing higher levels of belonging, sense of coherence, mindfulness, academic and social integration and their sense of connection to their university tend to turn to informal sources of support, while those with lower levels tend to turn to professional supports. Implications for prevention, outreach, and clinical practice are discussed.</p> Martin A. Swanbrow Becker Shengli Dong Julia Kronholz Chris Brownson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1636–1661 1636–1661 10.32674/jis.v8i4.222 Multilingual and Multimodal Repertoires as part of Identity Management on Facebook: A Case of International Students <p>The present study examines the multilingual and multimodal repertoires of international graduate students on Facebook, displaying how semiotic and linguistic resources are employed to index multiple aspects of their identity in social media. Drawing on data from semistructured interviews and social media data of participants, this paper reveals that multilingual students frequently engage in linguistic and multimodal practices by mobilizing a great diversity of semiotic resources in their networks. The findings highlight that international students effectively use their repertoires to deal with a multitude of audiences and build identification performances signaling local and global affiliations. In this respect, the study contributes to the current thinking and investigation of identity management in social media through a mixed-methods approach including social network analysis.</p> Osman Solmaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1662–1680 1662–1680 10.32674/jis.v8i4.223 Influential Factors in the College Decision-Making Process for Chinese Students Studying in the U.S. <p>For more than 1,043,839 international students, the United States is the destination of choice to pursue higher education. Although Chinese students account for almost one in three international students in the U.S., there are many unknowns about the influential factors behind their college decision. This qualitative study explores the self-described most important factors for Chinese students’ decision to attend college in the U.S. and the sources they seek to make their decision. This study found (1) parents are the most influential factor in the decision to attend college in the U.S., (2) students place great importance on rankings, and (3) in hindsight, students wish they focused less on rankings and did not need help from agencies when applying to colleges.</p> Madeline A. Rafi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1681–1693 1681–1693 10.32674/jis.v8i4.224 Using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Approach to Understand Academic Advising with International Community College Students <p>This study focuses on advising international students in a Texas community college. Guided by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model, I explored how academic advising with international students was shaped by individual backgrounds and environmental influences. I utilized a qualitative research design and analyzed information collected from interviews with 20 academic advisors and 15 international students at the community college. The findings of the study revealed factors in each subsystem of the model that may exert an important impact on international students’ experiences in advising and academic success. The findings can provide a valuable lens for advisors to better understand the challenges of working with international students and unveil forthcoming experiences for prospective international students</p> Yi Leaf Zhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1764–1782 1764–1782 Exploring the Academic English Socialization of International Graduate Students in Taiwan <p>Through 24 semi-structured interviews with non-native English-speaking (NNES) international graduate students, this study explores their academic English socialization experiences in Taiwan guided by Lave and Wenger’s (1991) community of practice framework and Lee and Rice’s (2007) concept of neo-racism. Throughout a complicated academic English socialization process, newcomers became increasingly competent in communicating with the university community in English. However, this process was not unproblematic; challenges included differential welcome and treatment, a relative lack of interaction with Taiwanese peers or students outside their own ethnic groups, and negative perceptions of their accents and non-fluent English. Findings suggest a need to stimulate deeper reflection on international students’ experiences in host communities, where they are increasingly the targets of nationality-based discrimination.</p> Shu-Wen Lan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1748–1763 1748–1763 Studying in Canada: Experiences of Female Graduate Students from Saudi Arabia <p>This paper presents findings from a study which explored experiences of Saudi Arabian female graduate students studying in Canada. The data for this descriptive qualitative study was collected through semi-structured interviews with ten students undertaking graduate studies in universities across 5 Canadian provinces. The findings of this study suggest that female graduate students from Saudi Arabia face unique challenges related to adaptation to a new education environment and to managing cultural expectations of Saudi and Canadian communities. Studying and living in Canada affected our participants’ personal values and changed the way they viewed themselves, their culture and community.</p> Bushra Alqudayri Tatiana Gounko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1736–1747 1736–1747 International Graduate Students’ Challenges and Learning Experiences in Online Classes <p>The purpose of this case study was to identify the learning experiences and examine the challenges facing three international graduate students enrolled in online, asynchronous classes in an American public university. Applying the lens of constructivism, data were collected from a questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, and a focus group. Findings from the study indicate that the students faced challenges with English language proficiency, isolation, instructor’s lack of experience, and a lack of motivation to study in online classes. Notwithstanding, students described flexibility and convenience as key factors of the learning experiences in a virtual classroom. Implications for administrators and course designers in understanding student perspectives of online classes and best practices for conducting asynchronous classes are provided.</p> Tala Michelle Karkar-Esperat ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1722–1735 1722–1735 English Versus Native Language on Social Media: International Students' Cultural Adaptation in the U.S. <p>The number of international students studying in the U.S. has substantially increased in the digital age. Do having access to content in their native language work for or against their adaptation to American culture? In order to address this question, this research employed focus groups and interviews containing a total of 12 international students in 2016. Qualitative data analysis then revealed international students' language preferences on social media as well as the functions performed by each language. Their cultural adaptation was studied by coding data into language preference, friendship, acts and social norms, and characteristics and values. Social media proved very effective in connecting international students with their home culture, but it was not as equally effective in connecting them with their host culture.</p> Haijing Tu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1709–1721 1709–1721 10.32674/jis.v8i4.226 Curiosity and Autonomy as Factors That Promote Personal Growth in the Cross-cultural Transition Process of International Students <p>This study explores measures of curiosity and autonomy as two motivation and personality predictors of personal growth initiative (PGI), an indicator of cross-cultural adjustment. The sample comprised 221 international graduate students. Structural equation modeling was utilized to identify the relations among self-perceived language skills, curiosity, autonomy, and PGI. The results indicate that perceived language skills and autonomy promote curiosity, which in turn facilitates PGI. Implications are suggested to facilitate the adaptation of international students.</p> Elif Merve Cankaya Jeffrey Liew Clarissa Pinto Pizarro de Freitas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1694–1708 1694–1708 10.32674/jis.v8i4.225 Examining the Sexual Enigma of the Immigrant Paradox with International Students <p>The metamorphosis of core sexual practices and sexual orientation norms resulting from the acculturation of U.S. native and non-native residents remains an enigma. A convenience sample from a metropolitan community college was drawn to describe the consequences of acculturation on U.S. international students’ core sexual practices and sexual orientation. Findings include: (1) observed differences in male international student sexual practices to that of the native male population were attributed to social opportunity and not the immigrant paradox, and (2) female international students’ core sexual practices and sexual orientation shifted over time to the higher risk sexual practices of the native female population. The U.S. needs to commit resources including qualified health educators, to support state mandated public school and undergraduate sex education for U.S. juveniles and young adults.</p> Philip A. Belcastro Hardaye Ramsaroop-Hansen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1783–1814 1783–1814 10.32674/jis.v8i4.231 International Graduate Students: Agency, Intentionality, and Socialization Reciprocity <p>Using grounded theory methodology, this study explored the development and implementation of Cultures and Languages across the Curriculum initiative in a residential college at Michigan State University. With a focus on international graduate students, our investigation led us to knowledge building communities and to patterns of behavior that we have conceptualized as socialization reciprocity. We note two key characteristics of the knowledge-building communities created within the Cultures and Languages across the Curriculum program are agency and intentionality, and these can only be realized by starting from the premise that the contributions of all participants are essential to the community. We argue this is in contrast to the not uncommon assumption that the cultural, linguistic, and pedagogical knowledge of international graduate students is somehow deficient.</p> José Manual Martínez India C. Plough ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1815–1830 1815–1830 10.32674/jis.v8i4.232 A Qualitative Exploration of On-Campus Experiences of English-Speaking Graduate International Students at a Leading Japanese University <p>With the rapid expansion of English-medium courses/degree programs at Japanese universities over the past 15 years, a greater number of English-speaking international students from diverse backgrounds are being attracted. However, little research has been conducted to address the needs of this minority group, especially at the graduate level. Employing interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), this study explores on-campus satisfaction with life (SWL) of nine graduate international students studying primarily in the Englishmedium regarding the support model of their Japanese university. Four master themes of traditional support, student ideal support, challenges, and best practices are discussed. The results present effective Japanese university support strategies that can promote SWL of English-medium graduate international students.</p> Mahboubeh Rakhshandehroo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1831–1847 1831–1847 10.32674/jis.v8i4.233 Hindsight is 20/20 Vision: What International Students Wished They Had Known Before Coming to Live and Learn in Ireland <p>This article reports on a survey (n=573) of international students who were attending one of a group of five higher education institutes (HEIs) in the south of Ireland. This study sought to identify what knowledge these students had about their host country before coming to Ireland. In this study, we also attempted to identify what aspects of living and learning in Ireland these students wished they had known about before they left their home countries. Finally, we discuss the types of academic, socio-cultural and practical resources that both welcoming colleges and international students should consider prioritising before departure, so as to truly help the transition from a home to host country.</p> Tom Farrelly Tony Murphy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1848–1864 1848–1864 10.32674/jis.v8i4.234 Developing Culturally Responsive Programs to Promote International Student Adjustment: A Participatory Approach <p>International students in the United States face acculturative stress, yet few seek counseling. In this paper, we highlight a participatory approach to develop culturally and contextually competent programs to enhance international student adjustment and engagement. We combined findings from the Acculturative Stress Scale of International Students (ASSIS) with interviews eliciting international student concerns and ideas for programming. On the ASSIS, randomly selected international students (n=40) expressed high levels of acculturative stress. These students, along with key informants (n=5) and international student leaders (n=8) formed focus groups, and provided suggestions for programs. Based on these formative results, we developed and described a variety of programs. Our experiences with participatory approaches suggest a promising avenue for enhancing cultural and contextual competence in international student programming.</p> Laura R. Johnson Tanja Seifen-Adkins Daya Singh Sandhu Nadezda Arbles Hitomi Makino ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1865–1878 1865–1878 10.32674/jis.v8i4.235 Writing Gravity: International Female Graduate Students’ Academic Writing Experiences <p>In a critical study, researchers explored academic writing experiences of three international female graduate students at a southern U.S. university in order to understand their perspectives of themselves as writers across cultures, their experiences with academic writing, and their coping strategies for academic writing assignments. Findings revealed participants’ challenges and self-doubts about second-language writing abilities. Participants both challenged disconfirmation of their writing and at times were submissive as they negotiated a graduate degree program. The study demonstrates need for universities to recognize marginalized groups’ knowledge and ways of knowing and to create spaces to discuss new possibilities for academic writing experiences among international students.</p> Abir Aly Eldaba Janet Kesterson Isbell ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1879–1890 1879–1890 10.32674/jis.v8i4.236 Factors Influencing Chinese International Students’ Strategic Language Learning at Ten Universities in the U.S.: A Mixed-Method Study <p>This QUAL-QUAN mixed-method study employed a sociocultural interpretive framework to describe the Language Learning Strategies used by Chinese international students at ten universities in the U.S. During phase one, we used typological and interpretive analysis to identify nine factors that influenced 15 students’ strategy use at four universities. In phase two we employed regression analysis to study the influence of these factors and two others on 117 students’ strategy use at six U.S. universities. While participation and English proficiency level predicted direct strategies like memory, cognitive and compensatory strategies, participation was identified as the sole predictor of indirect strategies, like metacognitive, affective and social strategies. Findings have implications for college administrators, faculty and students.</p> Yao Fu Crystal Machado Zhenjie Weng ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1891 1913 Study Abroad Objectives and Satisfaction of International Students in Japan <p>Many Japanese universities have created short-term study abroad programs with the aim of offering a satisfying study abroad experience to international students. Based on a survey of 131 international students, this paper analyzes these students’ objectives and their relation to student satisfaction. As the results show, many students regard their experience of living in Japan as more important than their academic pursuits. Furthermore, for students with prior knowledge of Japanese, improving language skills tends to result in higher satisfaction, while for students who do not speak the local language, achieving cross-cultural skills is a major factor for having a satisfying experience.</p> Matthias Hennings Shin Tanabe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1914–1925 1914–1925 Iranian Student Experience Pursuing Admission to Universities in the United States <p>This qualitative phenomenological study investigated the challenges faced by Iranian students during the admissions process at a mid-size southern university in the United States. Researchers used a convenience sample from Iranian masters and doctoral degree applicants admitted for the 2015-2016 academic year. Using face-to-face interviews researchers collected responses from seven Iranian students currently in the first year of their graduate programs. The overarching question guiding the study concentrated on the challenges experienced by Iranian students during the university admissions process. Focused questions included a discussion of specific challenges faced by Iranian students. The results from the interviews led the researchers to common themes that resonated across all three focused questions and a student recommendation on ways to streamline the process.</p> Theresa S. Hefner-Babb Rezvan Khoshlessan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1926 1940 Understanding International Students from Asia in American Universities: Learning and Living Globalization <p>In this book, the editors suggest that the intensity of globalization is helping to reshape the American Education System. The reshaping of the American educational system is reflected in the number of students the United States accommodates from different parts of the world. With an international student count of 1.09 million; the United States is one of the primary destinations for international students in the world. Interestingly, Chinese, Indian, and South Korean students represent more than half (51%) of the overall number of international students in the United States. However, Asian students combined represent 64.3% of the overall number of international students in America, making them the dominant group of students (Ma &amp; Garcia-Murillo, 2018, p. 1).</p> Ahoefa S. Tshibaka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 4 1941 1943